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James Stamford Caldwell 1787-1858 (known as Stamford)

Born: December 1787, baptized 27 December 1787 and died November 17 1858.
Son of: James Caldwell (1759-1838) and Elizabeth Caldwell (nee Stamford) (1754-1831).  
Brother of:
1. Hannah Eliza Roscoe (nee Caldwell, 1785-1854) who married William Stanley Roscoe (1782-1843).
2. Mary Caldwell (1789-1813).
3. Anne Marsh Caldwell (1791-1874) who married Arthur Cuthbert Marsh (1786-1849).
4. Margaret Emma Holland (nee Caldwell, 1792-1830) who married Sir Henry Holland (1788-1873). 
5. Catherine Louisa Caldwell (1794-1814).
6. Frances Caldwell, died 14 February 1801 aged 5.

James Stamford Caldwell never married.

We know of Stamford from the following sources:
1. The diaries of his sister Anne Marsh Caldwell and his father James Caldwell.
2. Books on the Wedgwood family.
3. Burke's Landed Gentry.
4. His books 'A Treatise Of The Law Of Arbitration' and 'Results of Reading'.
5. His large portrait by Thomas Phillips RA and a small miniature portrait.
6. His bookplate.
7. An entry in the book Alumni Cantabrigienses by JA Venn. Part II, 1752-1900, vol. I, Abbey-Challis, Cambridge, 1940, p. 490.
8. A very large collection of documents at the Staffordshire Record Office including his will. 

Stamford (the name which James Stamford Caldwell was known by), followed in his fathers footsteps and became a lawyer. He matriculated at St John's College, Cambridge University, 12 January 1804.  He seems to have had a scholarship of some kind and graduated with a BA in 1808 and MA in 1811.  He was admitted to Lincoln's Inn 12 November 1805, called to the bar in 1813 and incorported at the Inner Temple in 1821.  His first brief as a Barrister is noted in his father's diary:

15 March 1813.  At Stafford.   . . .   At these Assizes Stamford made his first essay as a Barrister. A Brief given him by Messrs Walthall & Ward in an undefended Cause in which he was . . .  to himself and a Brief also given him by Mr Sparrow in the Navig. Cause.

Upon the death of his father in 1838 Stamford inherited the family estate of Linley Wood.

Stamford seems to have lived the life of a highly educated English Country Gentleman.  He is mentioned briefly in the book "The Wedgwood Circle" as being a friend of the Wedgwood family.  He had a very large impressive portrait of himself painted by Thomas Phillips RA.  In addition to his library, he also build up a fine collection of artwork, many of the items coming from the Stowe auction in 1848.

Stamford wrote a number of books as follows:
A Digest of the Laws relating to the Poor.  Published by J. Butterworth & Son: London, 1821.
A Treatise of the Law of Arbitration.  Published by J. Butterworth & Son: London, 1817.
A Treatise of the Law of Arbitration.  Published by J. Butterworth & Son: London, 1825.
A Treatise of the Law of Arbitration.  2nd American edition.  Published by Chauncey Goodrich: Burlington, USA, 1853.
Results of Reading.  Published by John Murray, London, 1843.

He read a lot of books and had an extensive library.  He is listed as being a subscriber for the book: 'Barthomley: In Letters From a Former Rector to His Eldest Son' written by Rev. Edward Hinchliffe Rector of Mucklestone.  Published by Longman Brown Green & Longmans, London, 1856.

Stamford never married.  He died 17 November,1858, leaving a very unusual will which was very complicated.  The original will was written 20 November 1840 however over the following 18 years he made changes and additions on 17 separate occasions with the last amendment being 29 April 1858.  Extensive legal paperwork relating to this will exists in the Staffordshire Record Office including a large summarising document (4229/4/1).  There is also a document (4228/1-5) listing Stamford's property (land), the majority of which was a group of farms making up the Linley Wood estate but in addition there was property near Derby (Cannon Hills, Quarndon) and a large number of share holdings in a variety of companies.

Stamford's will stated that the Linley Wood Estate would be held in trust.  His sister Anne Marsh could live at Linley Wood for the rest of her life, as could any of her unmarried daughters.  After that, the estate would pass to the second son of his niece Mary Emma Heath and Leopold George Heath (later Lady Mary Emma Heath and Admiral Sir Leopold George Heath).  After that the estate would be passed on down to the eldest son.

The second son of Mary and Leopold was Frederick Crofton Heath, (later Maj Gen Frederick Crofton Heath-Caldwell) who was only a few months old at the time that Stamford wrote his last codicil.  Stamford wrote in numerous conditions including that all the people in possession of Linley Wood would have to add "Caldwell" as the last part of their surname.  Hence Anne changed her surname to "Marsh Caldwell" and Frederick changed his surname to "Heath-Caldwell" (when he finally inherited the estate 55 years later in 1913).  Stamford's will also stated that these eldest sons, who would inherit the Linley Wood estate, must be properly educated so that they could take up professions.

I understand that the will was contested, by some of the relatives.  It was proved in the Court of Probate 18 months later in April 1860 with the effects recorded as being under £18,000.  However this was not the last of the legal battles.  Further legal disputes arose in 1862 and 1868 with Anne Marsh-Caldwell and the majority of the other relatives in dispute with her three unmarried daughters the Miss Marsh-Caldwells.  Further disputes also arose regarding a Derby property which had been given to one of the Roscoe family for his life only, after which it was to be returned to the person in possession of Linley Wood (4229/3/2).

Like his father, Stamford's name is recorded on plaques in both St.Martin's church in Talke and in St.James's church in Audley. He is presumably entombed in the crypt in St.James.


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