We know of Thomas from the following sources:
1. The book; History of Parliament, The House of Commons, 1754-1790, by Sir Lewis Namier & John Brooke. Published 1964.
2. His miniature portraits and the portraits of his relatives. Christies Auction Catalogue, Kinross House, 30 March 2011.
3. A note in the 'Book of the Graemes and Grahams' by Louisa Grace Graeme.
4. The Graham family website (http://www.inchbrakie.com).
Christie's, Sale 5436, London, South Kensington, 30 March 2011, Lot 62. By HENRY EDRIDGE (BRITISH, 1768-1821). Thomas Graham (1752-1819), in blue coat with large silver buttons, yellow waistcoat and frilled white shirt and tied cravat, powdered hair, on ivory, oval, 2 11/16 in. (68 mm.) high, gilt-metal frame with plaited hair reverse. Thomas Graham was the son of John Graham of Kernock and married Ann Paul (see lot 64). They lived in Benares, India and he became a Bengal Civil Servant and and a member of the Board of Revenue as well as a partner in the private firm of Thomas Graham, John Mowbray, Robert Graham and William Skirrow. On their return from India in 1809 he succeeded to the estate of Kinross left to him by his half-brother George Graham. They had three children: Ann, Helen, and a son who was killed by pirates en route to India. Thomas Graham left the estate of Kinross to whichever daughter first produced a male heir. The youngest, Helen, married Sir James Montgomery, 2nd Bt. (see lot 54) and the arrival in 1823 of Graham, their third child (see lot 83), enabled them to succeed to the Kinross estate. For a portrait of Thomas Graham by Thomas Hickey, painted in Calcutta, circa 1790, and now in Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon. Collection, see M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, London, 1979, p. 215, pl. 135.
Lot 88. ENGLISH SCHOOL, CIRCA 1770 Thomas Graham (1752-1819), in brown coat, white frilled cravat, powdered hair en queue, on ivory, oval, 1.5 in. (40 mm.) high, gilt-metal frame.
Lot 63. SAMUEL ANDREWS (IRISH, 1767-1807). Thomas Graham (1752-1819), almost in profile to the left, in coat and cravat, en grisaille, signed and dated 'S. Andrews Calcutta 1802' (lower centre), on ivory, oval, 2.75 in. (70 mm.) high, gold frame, glazed reverse with pale silk panel.
Lot 64. GEORGE ENGLEHEART (BRITISH, 1750/53-1829). Mrs Thomas Graham (nee Ann Paul), in white lace-bordered dress, wearing a coral necklace, white bandeau in her powdered curling hair and tied below her chin, on ivory, oval, 2 3/8 in. (60 mm.) high, gold frame, the plaited hair reverse set with seed-pearl monograms: AG in the centre and on the right, HG on the left and another set of initials bottom centre. A label on the reverse erroneously attributes this miniature to Cosway.
Literature; G. C. Williamson, Richard Cosway, R.A. and his Wife and Pupils, London, 1897, p. 113 (erroneously as by Richard Cosway, R.A.). Exhibited; London, South Kensingon Museum, Special Exhibition of Portrait Miniatures, 1865, no. 1951 (erroneously as by Richard Cosway, R.A., lent by Sir G. Graham-Montgomery, Bt. M.P.). London, Moncorvo House, 64 Ennismore Gardens, Amateur Art Exhibition, 1895, no. 46. Ann Graham, nee Paul was the wife of Thomas Graham .
For a biographical note and a portrait of her husband, see lot 62. The seed-pearl initials on the reverse of the miniature represent the names of the sitter's children: Ann, Helen, and a son who died in 1808. A Mrs Graham is recorded in George Engleheart's fee book for 1785 (see G. C. Williamson & H. Engleheart, George Engleheart 1750-1829. Miniature Painter to George III., London, 1902, p. 97).
Lot 54. RICHARD COSWAY, R.A. (BRITISH, 1742-1821). Sir James Montgomery, 2nd Bt. of Stanhope (1766 -1839), in dark grey coat, white waistcoat and knotted cravat, powdered hair, blue sky background. Signed and dated in full on the backing card 'R.dus Cosway. R.A. Primarius Pictor Serenissimi Walliae Principis Pinxit 1792', on ivory, oval, 2 11/16 in. (68 mm.) high, gilt-metal frame with glazed reverse. Literature; G. C. Williamson, Richard Cosway, R.A. and his Wife and Pupils, London, 1897, p. 113. Exhibited; London, Burlington Fine Arts Club, Exhibition of Portrait Miniatures, 1865, no. 1952 (lent by Sir G. Graham-Montgomery, Bt., M.P.). London, Moncorvo House, 64 Ennismore Gardens, Amateur Art Exhibition, 1895, no. 47. Sir James Montgomery, 2nd Bt. was the son of Sir James Montgomery, 1st Bt. (see lot 52) and Margaret Scott. He was M.P. for Peeblesshire between 1800 and 1831 and held the office of Lord Advocate of Scotland between 1804 and 1806. He married secondly in 1816, Helen Graham, daughter of Thomas Graham (see lots 62 and 63, and lot 64 for a portrait of his wife) and they had five children: Anne, Margaret Fleming (see lot 55), Graham (see lot 83), John Basil Hamilton, and Thomas Henry.
Lot No: 157Y Bonhams 2009. Miniature portrait of Anna Maria Graham of Kinross House (later Mrs George Templer) (d.1849), wearing white dress with strand of pearls across her left breast, a white bandeau in her powdered hair, worn curled and long. Gold frame, the reverse glazed to reveal plaited hair. Oval, 68mm (2 11/16in) high. Painted by Andrew Plimer (British, 1763-1837). Anna Maria Graham was born in Calcutta, 2 August 1787, the eldest daughter of Thomas Graham of Kinross House and his wife Ann (nee Paul). She married on 21 May 1807, her 1st cousin, George Henry Templer, vicar of Shapwick, Somerset and eldest son of George Templer and his wife Jane (nee Paul). The couple's mothers, the Misses Paul, daughters of Henry Paul, were described by a contemporary as "the most beautiful women ever married in India". On the occasion of her marriage, Anna Maria received 5000 pounds from her father. When he died, without a male heir (his only son Thomas Henry having been killed, aged 16, on the way to India) by the terms of his will, the house and lands at Kinross passed to his daughters and in due course to his first grandson to reach the age of 21. Sadly, despite being the elder daughter, Anna Maria only had a daughter, Sophia, so the estates passed to her sister Helen's son, Graham Montgomery, in whose family the house has passed until being offered for sale this year. Anna Maria's father and mother were painted by Richard Cosway and George Engleheart respectively.
Sir William Mayne, who was the brother of his mother Helen Graham, helped to get appointments for both Thomas and his brother John to work for the East India company in India.
Thomas Graham lived at Benares in India. In the East India Company he was a Bengal Civil Servant and a member of the Board of Revenue. He was also a partner in the private firm of Thomas Graham, John Mowbray, Robert Graham and William Skirrow.
Thomas's elder half brother George, had initially gone to Jamaica where he worked as a planter but after 1770 he also went to India (also helped by his uncle Sir William Mayne) and joined his two younger half brothers Thomas and John. They all appear to have made lots of money. On his return to England George worked as a merchant in London and later in 1777 he bought Kinross house in Scotland. George had an illegitimate son James Graham but James did not inheriet Kinross House. Instead it passed to John's brother Thomas Graham. After Thomas's death in 1819 the estate passed to his daughter Helen who had married Sir James Montgomery.
From the 'Book of the Graemes and Grahams' by Louisa Grace Graeme, we have the following:
Thomas Graham the fourth and youngest son of John Graham of Kernock (Helen's third son) was born on the 5th October 1752, he also went to India and was member of the Supreme Council of Bengal; he married Ann Paul, a daughter of Henry Paul, Esq.; Mr Strangeways writes of her and her sister (who became the wife of George Templer Esq., of Shapwick, Devon, which estate he purchased from the Rolls on his re-turn from India) they were the most beautiful women ever married in India.
Thomas, on his return from India with his wife Ann Paul, bought the Manor of Burleigh and also succeeded to the estate of Kinross from his half-brother George Graham (as mentioned on pages 597-8). An only son and two daughters were born of the marriage, the son born in 1784 was brought up by his aunt, Mrs Templer of Shapwick, he unfortunately lost his life in 1808 when on his way to India at the taking of the 'Kent'.
Thomas Graham, who had by that date inherited Kinross, left that estate to whichever of his two daughters should first have a son; both married; the eldest, Ann, became the wife of her cousin the Rev. G. H. Templer, Rector of Shapwick (son of George Templer and the lovely Miss Paul), their daughter was named Sophia and married H. Strangeways, Esq., and has issue. The younger daughter of Mr Graham of Kinross and Ann Paul was Helen, she married Sir James Montgomerie of Stobo Castle, Baronet and M.P. for Perthshire, and becoming the mother of a son brought the estate of Kinross to the Montgomeries of Stobo Castle, who thus represent the Grahams of Kinross.