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Diary of Anne Marsh Caldwell (1791-1874) for 1810 to 1812
(In 1810 Anne was 19 years old)


Anne Marsh-Caldwell diary 1810



Note as you read, no matter how slow at first, you ought to play no quicker than you can read without hesitating, these faults will soon improve upon you, every note as you read it ought to be performed with all its marks exactly as it is written, and you are not, because the passage is hard, to omit attention to the figure or to the just expression but only to play it so much slower. In practicing, where one passage is harder than the general, gnabts of the music, play it several times over till you can play it perfect in the time in which you are able to play the piece. Never pass over the slightest mistake, you fancy perhaps this will deprive your performance of all spirit but a good player never can play with spirit till he can play perfectly correctly. When you have acquired this habit, your own taste and love of music will give hearts to your performance in proportion to what you possess. If you are wanting in these things you surely will not supply their place by a scurbly habit of playing, but know these rules and you will at least have the satisfaction of making some progress though your health perhaps [ork?] but allow it to be small.


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Anne Caldwell



August 1st 1810

Wisdom is the light pleasant to behold casting a sprightly luster and diffusing a benign influence all about presenting a goodly prospect of things to the eyes of the mind, displaying things in their due shapes, postures and  magnitudes and  colours quickening our spirits with a comfortable warmth and disposing our minds to a cheerful activity dispelling the darkness of  ignorance, scattering the mists of  doubt, driving away the specters of delusive fancy, mitigating the cold of sullen melancholy, discovering obstacles, securing progress and making the passage of life clear, open and easy.


A wise man by constant observation and impartial reflexion upon himself, grows very familiar with himself, he perceives his own inclinations which if bad he strives to alter and correct, if good he cherishes and corroborates them.


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He apprehends the matter he is fitting for and capable to manage and these applying his care to he transacts cheerfully and successfully.


Wisdom instructs us to examine, compare and rightly to value the objects that court our affections and challenge our case and thereby regulate our passions and moderates our endeavours which begets a pleasant serenity and pleasurable tranquility of mind.


Wisdom distinguishes the circumstances, limits the measures, determines the mode, appoints the fit seasons of action so preserving decorum and order, the parent of peace and preventing confusion, the mother of iniquity, strife and disorder.


Wisdom teaches the good may but the evil of our neighbour can in no wise advantage us that from the suffering of any man, simply considered no benefit can accrue nor natural satisfaction arise to us and therefore tis a vain brutish unreasonable thing for nay cause whatsoever to desire or delight in the grief, pain or misery of our neighbour to hate or annoy him, to insult over or devise mischief against him.


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The principal advantage of wisdom is its acquainting us with the nature and reason of true religion. I say the nature of religion wherein it consists and what it  requires the mistake of  which produceth so many mischiefs and conveniences in the world and exposes so good  a name to so much reproach, it consists not in a nice orthodoxy but in a sincere love of truth, in a hearty approbation of and compliance with the doctrines fundamentally good, not in vain flourishes of  outward performance but in an inward good complection of mind, not in a furious zeal for or against trivial circumstances but in a conscionable practicing the substantial parts of religion.


Barrow's "Sermon upon Wisdom." 


Page 5-11


French transcription - Madame de Stael - Ah qu'on etoit heureux il y a dis ausies lorsqu entrant dans le monde plein de confiance dans ses fosces dans les amis qi soffroient a vous dans la vie qui n'avait point encore dementi ses promises on ne uncontroit ni des paitis injustes ni des haines encenimees ni des rionux ni des jaleux l'on n'etait alors aux regards de tous qu'une esperance et qui n'acceuible pas l'esperance mais dix ans après la  route de l'existence est déjà profondement  trace les opinions qu'on a montrees ont heuste des interest des passions des sentimens et votre ami et votre pensee n'osent - [continues.]

Madame de Stael sur la Littorature.



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It is difficult to find sensible characters to whom we can freely communicate our pleasures and our pains.



Lines upon the Statue of night be Michael Angelo placed on the tomb of Giuliano de Medici. 

"La notte chetu vidi in si dolu atti, 

Dormer fu da un Angel scolpito.

In questo sasso e perehe dorme la vita

Destasla se not credi e parlaratti.


Michael Angelo's reply.


Grato me'il sonno e pici esser di  Sasso

Mentre che'l danno e la vesgogra dusa

Non vedor nono sentor me gran ventura

Piso mon mi destar deti parlar basso.


Duppas "Life of Michael Angelo." 


French transcription - S'existance des femmes dans la societe est encore mestaine sous plusieurs rapports le desir de plaise excite leur esprit la raison leur conseille l'obseunte tout est arbitraise dans leur success comme dans leurs revers si qui reussit aux unes perd les autres les qualities leurs nuisent quelqufois les defants leur serrent.

De Stael Holstein. 


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Les demoiselles parlent pour l'ordinaire mal de  la guerre je vous assure en cela comme en tout autre circonstance que le bon sens regle tout et que quand on en a il n'y a dame qui recommondat bien les armees.

Mlle Montespan.




4th January 1810

Mr and Mrs John, Mr and Mrs Jos Wedgwood, Mr Baugh Allen dined here.


5th January 1810

They left us.


11th January 1810

Party to Maer.


12th January 1810

I dined at Dr Northens, met Miss Swinnerton, Captain Maccleston.


17th January 1810

Emma and Louisa went to Etruria.


18th January 1810

Went with Eliza and Papa and Mama to Audley and Drayton Assembly.


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19th January 1810

Party dined at Audley. Mr and Mrs Crochet, Mr Davison.


20th January 1810

Came home.


25th January 1810

Went with Eliza to Basford. Sarah Wedgwood.


28th January 1810

Called at Etruria


29th January 1810

Went to hear the Musical glasses.


30th January 1810

Came home.


3rd February 1810

Went to  Betley hall, Miss Hills.


4th February 1810

Called at Sir Thomas Fletchers.


6th February 1810

Came home.


9th February 1810

Went to Bostock.


11th February 1810, Sunday

 To church.


14th February 1810

Mrs, Miss Crompton, Emma and Caroline.


19th February 1810

John Lawrence came.


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20th February 1810

Went to the Assembly.


22nd February 1810

Mr Wedgwood dined here.


23rd February 1810

Mrs Wedgwood dined here.


2nd March 1810

Mr Butt, Griffin and Bailly dined and staid all night.


4th March 1810

Went with the Cromptons as far as Knutsford. Dined at Mr Holland's and returned at night.


25th March 1810

The two families of Wedgwoods, Mr and Miss F and Allen and Mr Wilbraham dined here. 


26th March 1810

Wedgwoods, Allens left us.


28th March 1810

Miss Nolles came. 


30th March 1810

JSC [James Stamford Caldwell] came home.


2nd April 1810

Miss Nolles left us.


3rd April 1810

JC [James Caldwell] to London


5th April 1810

Called at Etruria with Mama and Stamford. 


8th April 1810

My Uncle came.


10th April 1810

My Uncle went, Sally Wedgwood came.


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12th April 1810

I went with Mama, my Aunt and  Mary to Etruria. Fanny Allen was there.


15th April 1810

Mama returned. JSC joined us.


17th April 1810

Mr Butt, Mr Tappey [Jaffey?] dined at Etruria.


18th April 1810

We all returned home.


20th April 1810

My Aunt, Emma and Louisa went to Eton.


26th April 1810

I went with Eliza to Westwood.


28th April 1810

A long walk to Wetley rocks.


29th April 1810

To Church, walked with C P in the evening.


30th April 1810

Walked to Cheddleton in the morning, to Rovnall in the evening.


1st May 1810

A long walk in the morning, a short one in the evening.


3rd May 1810

Came home. Mr Wood and Wedgwood dined at Linley Wood.


4th May 1810

Mrs Wedgwood, Fanny Allen, S Wedgwood and Mr Butt came to Linley Wood.


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5th May 1810

Mr Wedgwood came, Mr Butt went in the evening.


8th May 1810

The Wedgwoods went. Mr Ashton Yates dined here.


11th May 1810

Eliza and Mary went to Darlaston.


14th May 1810

Mary and Eliza returned home.


17th May 1810

We went to the fashions, Mrs Ralph, Sophia and Maria came. 


18th May 1810

We went to the Dioastrodoson.


20th May 1810

The Swinton Hollands dined here.


21st May 1810

Mr Gorton came and staid all night.


23rd May 1810

Another party to the Dioastrodoson.


25th May 1810

I went with my Aunt and Mary to Nantwich.


26th May 1810

A Bailey called upon me, walked with her to Beas heath, dined at my Uncle's, drank tea at Mrs Billets.


27th May 1810

Went to Church to hear Mr Thomas, Papa came.


28th May 1810

Called upon A.B., walked, Papa went.

A large party to Uncles.


30th May 1810

Returned home with Mr Thomas and Miss Bailey.


31st May 1810

Mr P Bailey and Mr Thomas dined here. Mr Thomas and Miss Bailey went in the evening. 


4th June 1810

The Ralphs went to Burslam.


6th June 1810

A party to Trentham.


8th June 1810

The Ralphs went.


9th June 1810

My Aunt took all of us to Matlock, a charming day, we had a most agreeable ride. The country about Cheadle is very beautiful, from Cheadle to Ashbourn. Passed by Cotton and Oakamon. Ashbourne a beautiful town, saw the church and monument of Sir B Boothby's little daughter, a beautiful figure of a sleeping child surrounded with inscriptions from some of the best Latin English and Italian authors. We left Ashbourn late and arrived at Matlock by moonlight which added greatly to the beauties of the place. I shall not easily for impression made upon my mind when out of one of the highest windows of the Temple. I looked down that beautiful valley, the imperfections of which were at that moment lost in obscurity but after all voyager est quorque on en puisse dire un de plus tristes plaisirs de la vie. We found Miss Wedgwood, Miss Morgan and Mrs Robinson at the Temple.


10th June 1810

Was Sunday, we all five sallied forth in our clean gowns and pelices and paraded about till we were quite tired of saying how beautiful it was. After dinner we walked to Sir R Arkwright's chapel and found the congregation just coming out. We then went to Crumsall and saw a pretty village. Mary and I had an agreeable conversation with Mrs Robinson in the evening.


11th June 1810

Walked through Sir R A's grounds, the Robinsons, Wedgwoods, Morgan drank tea with us. 


12th June 1810

We went into the Cumberland Cavern which rather disappointed me, it is neither so curious nor so beautiful as I expected. We went also to see Phaebe, she is very disgusting altogether with a sweetness about her eyes that I cannot account for, we went to Mrs Leacrofts and drank tea in the evening with the Robinsons &c.


13th June 1810

It rained hard, the Robinsons went, saw a museum, dined with the Wedgwoods. 


14th June 1810

Walked to the high Tor. Miss Wedgwood and Morgan then left Matlock. Drank tea with Miss M Noble.


15th June 1810

Called on the Gaschells, at Miss Nobles. In the evening we went to Ashbourn. 


16th June 1810

Saw Dovedale and Islan. Returned to Linley Wood highly gratified with our excursion. 


18th June 1810

Mrs Lawrence, Miss Batts [Potts?], Emma and Sarah came. 


21st June 1810

They left us.


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23rd June 1810

Mr and Mrs W. Bent and Miss Gorton came.


24th June 1810

John Bent dined here.


26th June 1810

The W. Bents &c left us.


29th June 1810

Walked to Basford and dined there.


5th July 1810

Mrs Wood and three girls came.


6th July 1810

Mr Houghton and Mary came.


9th July 1810

HEC, HS, MC to quarry bank. Mr Butt came.


10th July 1810

The Woods went. Mr Butt went.


11th July 1810

They returned from quarry Bank.


14th July 1810

HEC, MEC went to Nantwich.


16th July 1810

The Turners and Hollands, my Aunts came.


17th July 1810

Mr Holland went.


19th July 1810

The Wedgwoods called.


21st July 1810

The Hollands left us. Emma and Louisa to Maer.


22nd July 1810

Mr W and R. Bent dined here.


23rd July 1810

My Aunts, HS and HEC went to Nantwich.


25th July 1810

Rode to Newcastle and Etruria.


28th July 1810

Mrs Peake and family.


31st July 1810

My Aunt and Eliza from Nantwich. Mrs Butt.


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2nd August 1810

The Rakes went. Mrs Butt left us in the evening.


3rd August 1810

Mrs Sandford, Mrs Gorton and the W Bents dined here.


4th August 1810

Miss Swinnertons dined here.


5th August 1810

My Aunt Anne came to go to Buxton.

My Aunt B returned in the evening taking Mary H with her, Emma and Louisa returned home.


6th August 1810

Two Miss Franes, J France, Mr S Perceval came. My Aunts S and A to Buxton.


7th August 1810

Races Ball.


8th August 1810

Races. Stand and Play.


9th August 1810

A party went which I was too unwell to join. 


10th August 1810

The Frances left us.


13th August 1810

My Aunts came home.


15th August 1810

My Aunt A returned to Nantwich.


19th August 1810

JS Caldwell came home.


22nd August 1810

I set out with my Aunt and Mary for Ramsgate. To Newcastle 6 miles. To Stone 9 miles. To Walsall16. Over Lannock Heath which though commanding some extensive views is dreary and unpleasant. At Walsall I was so impressed with melancholy reflections that I wrote down in my travelling book Voyager est quoique on en puisse dire un des plus tristes plaisirs de la vie passer de place en place sans ni trouver ni exciter d'interet voir passer par vous desetes que vous ne reveney jamais crier de chaps en champ d'arbre a arbre sans but et sans plaisir. To Birmingham 9. Called on the Lawrences. To Hockley 10 miles, arrived in the dark and were obliged to proceed to Stratford upon Avon.


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23rd August 1810

Stratford is an old town and one part on the road to Shipston lying on the edge of the river very beautiful. I could not help fancying how often Shakespeare's eyes had wandered over these scenes with delight. To Shipston 11 miles through a fertile country divided into large fields of corn through which the road passes without any fence on each side, as the country now appeared with its neat villages and gardens dressed up in all the gayest flowers of Summer I never was more delighted. The wild  flowers give a peculiar feature to this part of the country being so numerous and so gay as absolutely to give a colouring to the landscape. To Chapel House 10. Still the same lovely country. Long Compton a remarkably pretty village. To Woodstock 12 through Blenheim Park. The whole has an air of magnificence that I never saw equaled. The long and straight approach is very striking, the building itself robbed of those triumphal arches which scattered over the roof break and destroy the whole effect would by highly impressive as it is there appears something very noble in this reward of a country to her greatest general and I think those who designed the recompense had at least the merit of taste and judgment.


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To Oxford 10.  Never was I more struck than with the beauty and gaiety of this place. London never impressed me half so much, the profusion of gothic building, the neatness of the streets, the gaiety of the inhabitants, the green trees and courts of the colleges and the smiling sky overhead all conspired to give me a more lively sensation of pleasure than I ever experienced before from the sight.

To Tetsworth 12. Flat and dull, to Wycombe 13, the road leads through Stoken Church wood, for many miles for forest scenery from a hill at the entrance there is an extensive view over Oxford, Warwick and Bedfordshire. It being late we could see little of the latter part of the stage which appears full of wood.


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24th August 1810

To Uxbridge and thence to Brentford, a ride to me very dull for  I have a particular dislike to [putness, flatness, neatness?] of the scenery near London. If I may call it so from Brentford, we passed over the bridge and through Wandsworth, Clapham Common, Clapham and Deptford to Black Heath. We saw some fine views of London. Black Heath lies high and is a beautiful situation. Proceeded to Dartford, Shooters Hill, from the top of which is a noble view of London, the Thames, the coast of Essex &c. The whole of the road very interesting. To Rochester, passed Green Hythe, beautifully situated in a chalk quarry. North Fleet and Gravesend. Beautiful views of the Thames. Gadshill. Rochester is  delightfully situated on the  Medway, there is a  cathedral and ruined castle. Chatham lies close behind it. A very fine bridge over the river commanding a fine view of the valley through which it winds.


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25th August 1810

To Sittingbourne. Fine views of the Medway and of the Isle of Sheppey. To Canterbury through Faversham, a beautiful church. Canterbury a very old town, walled Cathedral, very ancient and a mixture of different styles of architecture, gloomy and impressive rather than beautiful. Saw among other curious tombs that of Edward the Black Prince whose armour is hanging over it. I was surprised to see it that of a slender man with very small hands and feet though tall. It was all dropping to pieces though the steel gloves were very entire. A model of the sword straight but of prodigious size and length lay by the side of the figure. There were also the monuments of Henry 2nd and his queen, very well executed. She is respresented as a very lovely woman. Under the Cathedral is a large space supported by Saxon arches of very simple execution, part of which is used as a chapel by the Walloons. There seem several curious antiquities in this place, at the back of the Cathedral is a square of cloisters of beautiful architecture. We also saw a ruined gateway and tower of St Augustin's Abbey. To Ramsgate, over Mount Pleasant commanding a fine view. Ramsgate is situated in a narrow valley from whence the chalk cliffs rise on the top of which the buildings appropriated to company are placed. The harbour is screened by two piers, at the end of one is a light house. The cliffs command a view of the coast of France. Sandwich Deal and the south Foreland, the country round seems fertile, there are few trees and hedges, the cultivation is in general artificial, grasses in which the cattle are tethered.


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26th August 1810

Walked in search of lodgings, took them at Belle vue . . . 


27th August 1810

Walked on the North Cliff, Mr Vince called, walked in the evening to Nelson buildings and to church.


28th August 1810

Mr Vince called. We walked on the pier. In the evening from whence the view is beautiful.


29th August 1810

Walked to Pigwell Bay.


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2nd September 1810, Sunday

Walked to Church.


5th September 1810, Wednesday

We went to see Margate by Kingsgate and the North Foreland. Margate much larger than Ramsgate but not near so pleasantly situated, the shore wet and the cliffs less bold.


7th September 1810, Friday

Mr Saunders came to my Aunt.


9th September 1810, Sunday

MC and I went to a Chapel at Ramsgate for which we paid a shilling entrance.


11th September 1810, Tuesday

All very unwell.


14th September 1810, Friday

Mr Vince called. . . . . 


15th September 1810, Saturday

We left Ramsgate for Dover. To Deal over Minster Marshes where are several curious flowers, to Sandwich, now separated by a considerable rising ground, vessels however come up the Stour as high as Sandwich further on, fine views of the Downs at Deal, large barracks 4.74 lying close to the part in the downs the shore here becomes gravelly. Walmer, Sandwich, Deal Castle lie close round it. To Dover. The approach lies over the Castle Hill from the top of which there is complete birds eye view of Dover for the water in the docks and the pavement of the streets is seen. Dover lies upon the beach at the end of a narrow valley that winds between the surrounding hills that rise to a prodigious height above the town. The Castle Hill and that opposite are fortified. Shakespeares cliff is on the other side of the town and looks like an immense cone set upon the cliffs. It is impossible, full as I am of the striking and beautiful appearance of this place, to give the least idea of it by description. We walked down the steep descent and came to the Ship Inn which looks upon the harbour.


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My Aunt and I climbed to the top of Shakespeare's cliff but dare not attempt to look down the dizzy height. The view from it is fine, two men at the top from the road seemed no bigger than crows.


16th September 1810, Sunday

Rained hard, we could not see the coast of France, the weather was so unfavourable.  Went to church and then left this interesting place where I could well imagine myself in a frontier town on the continent.

We crept between the hills till pretty near Folkestone when we had a fine view all down into Kent. The cliffs here make a curious appearance, about half a mile from the sea they first show themselves and heap down into smaller ones, as they approach it from a hill the land  appears to lie very curiously, an immense plain stretching to the sea for  a great extent, the skirted with steep pointed hills.


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Folkestone lies high, here the Martillo Towers begin.  We proceeded to Sandgate along the high grounds till we suddenly came by a very steep descent to the sea shore along which Sandgate lies with Shorn Cliff on which are prodigious barracks hanging over. Sandgate has a kind of Castle at one end and the town consisting mostly of wood houses painted white stretches round the little bay. It is a lovely place but seems quite shut out from the world. The road lies along the gravelly beach to Hythe which lies in a kind of nich between two hills embosomed in trees with the church at the top of the town, it is a quarter of a mile from the sea shore.


17th September 1810

We returned to Sandgate, found several curious plants, could not get lodgings, therefore came back to Hythe and proceeded along the immense plain to New Romney 9 miles, all the views towards Sandgate and Folkestone are more beautiful than I can describe.


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We went to see a sort of tower mounting 11 24 pounders with the Barracks for the men under ground. From near this tower begins Dimchurch wall, an immense embankment extending 6 or 7 miles which shuts out Romney Marsh from the sea. It is formed of piles and wicker work fitted solid with gravel to which the sea adds fresh quantities every tide as you proceed pass [by mine, lymure?] a ruin on the top of one of the hills skirting the plain which is as flat as an American [Banen, Barren?]. From Romney to Rye 15 miles, the same plains continue separated by the same chain of hills, from North Kent the hills seem luxuriant and are well wooded. Passed by Dungeness which stretches far into the sea perfectly flat on which is [Lyard?]. All this  coast is guarded by Martello towers which are circular, flat at the top,  bomb proof 12 feet thick, cost each £10,000  and have 5 men attached to  every one with one canon at the top and a flag staff. We crossed a marsh over which the tide flows on the opposite side stands Rye on a pointed hill with cliffs down to the marsh and topped by the church and surrounded with hills cloathed with wood. It is excessively beautiful. Here we entered Sussex. Rey to Hastings 12, Winchelsea stands very high and commands an extensive view of this lovely country all broken with woody hills. Here the appearance of the soil &c entirely changes, the chalk finishes and is succeeded by sand. The road winds along narrow lanes with high hedges and becomes heavy and hilly. It was dark when we reached Hastings.


18th September 1810.

Hastings is a dirty and disagreeable town and there is no way to the sands but along a beach covered with boats, fish and dirt. The cliffs are very rocky and fine.  Besholm Point forms here a fine bay. We proceeded to Eastbourne for several miles along the shore by Bexhill where are large barracks. Some miles from Hastings the coast again flattens and is guarded by Martello towers. Peversey Castle, an old inn finely overgrown with ivy. Reached South Bourne which lies between East Bourne, a mile from the coast and Sea Houses close upon the shore. We took lodgings at Sea Houses. The shore is very pretty. Beachy Head, a point composed of high cliffs rising high above the water forms one side of the  bay, the other has no cliff at all, all the country to this place is  flat, here the hills stretch all  along from Beachy Head and the country is hill as far as Seaford, the last place we visited. The country on the sides towards Hastings have very few trees and the sand and pebbles stretches far from the shore giving the appearance of deserts. Towards Eastbourne it is very luxuriant. There are barracks close to Sea houses.


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19th September 1810

MC bathed, the bathing here is not so agreeable as at Ramsgate, the sea is rough and the pebbles was lad in ridges which makes it steep and disagreeable. [?]


20th September 1810

We heard the band play the company here all sit upon the pebbles in the sun, quite at ease.


29th September 1810

We went to see Seaford, the road lies over the downs which are here very hilly indeed. The soil is chalky. Seaford is a very small place, lies at a short distance from the beach, the cliffs are high on each side the town though just before it the shore is quite flat and very pebbly.


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Eastbourne is a hill which commands a lovely view to the sea. Hudsham wood Barracks to Mayfield 13. Soil sandy, country finely wooded but not populous and there are very few gentlemen's seats. To Tunbridge Wells 9, a most beautiful ride, the country hilly and woody. By Ettridge Castle, a beautiful seat of Lord Abergavenny's all the neighbourhood of Tunbridge is very pretty. The pantiles[?] were full of company and the whole place had an air of gaiety. To Sevn Oaks Common through the town of Tunbridge on the Medway. This is beautiful, a ruined castle, trees and the river, in short all the road as far as Sev'n Oaks for luxuriance and beauty exceeds description. The whole valley in which Tunbridge lies particularly Sev'n Oaks looks into the park at Knowle, Duke of Dorset's.


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3rd October 1810

To Bromley, the coast crowded  with gentlemen's seats, there is a hill of a prodigious height and  steepness called  Masan's Court Hill which we had to ascend and which commands a glorious view of a valley in which are six gentlemen's seats with extensive grounds. Bromley to London, Fladdings Hotel, Oxford St.


4th October 1810

To Dunstable.


5th October 1810

To Litchfield.


6th October 1810

Home, Mr Peake came.


7th October 1810

Eliza and Stamford came from Maer.


8th October 1810

JSC to Bostock.


10th October 1810

Mama, my Aunt and Emma to Maer. Mr Peake went.


17th October 1810

We all went to an Ortour at Newcastle. A selection of sacred music. C Ashly was the conductor and Wagstaff the leader of the band. Mr and Mrs Vaughan, Goss and Doyle the principal singers, Mrs V pleased me much a concert at the theatre.


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18th October 1810

Heard the Messiah which much gratified me. Sat with Miss S Wedgwood and enjoyed her remarks much. I went with her to the concert and thence to the Assembly.


22nd October 1810

Henry Holland came. He is just returned from Iceland. Iceland is as large as England and Wales and contains about 40,000 inhabitants. The principal town Ricovich is small and irregular, contains about 14,000 people, here reside the governor, a Dane and the Lord Chief Justice, an Icelander. The best house in the island belongs to him, it is built of wood pitched over and white washed, in the inside the furniture as in the continent. The houses of the people are miserable dark hovels half under ground and receptacle of filth and horrid smells.  The inhabitants are fair and handsome but dirty to an extreme. They are in general well informed and invariably able to read. There is a law by which a woman is forbid to marry till she has acquired this accomplishment. The food is milk, butter and stock fish which is Cod Fish or Haddock dried, beat with a hammer and used instead of bread. Vegetables of all sorts scarcely known, bread or biscuit the greatest rarity, and the [fuel, find?] only dried seafowl. The dress of the men much resembles that of  an English sailor. The women wear very rich ornaments and belts of silver embroidered which is prepared and worked in the Island, some of the dresses are worth 40 pounds. The morals of the people who have a communication with the Danes are exceedingly depraved, the islanders themselves very pure, on the coast they use spirituous liquors, in the interior only milk and water. The society is so little civilized that men and their guests are waited upon by women. At Ricovich they have regular Balls at Ricovich at one given by the travelers ham and cheese were great dainties. The language is Teutonic or Gothic, they have many books and manufacturers among others Pope's essay on Man and Milton's Paradise Lost translated into their language. The Island is covered with burning mountains of which Hechla has gained renown without any real pre-eminence. The interior is uninhabited, nor can it even be explored, it is so entirely barren being one bed of lava and cinders. On the coast is good grass. There are only two trees on the island, their wood is thrown up by the sea. The hot springs are renowned all the world over. They spring up at intervals, some to the height of 18 feet.


23rd October 1810

Mrs Griffin and Mr Wilson called up JSC. 


24th October 1810

Mr Wilson dined here.


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25th October 1810

Henry Holland left us.


29th October 1810

Went to Etruria to the sale of the plants.


1st November 1810, Thursday

Colonel Sherret came.


2nd November 1810, Friday

The Chetwodes and Tollets with Miss Dumaresq dined here.


3rd November 1810, Saturday

The Chetwodes and Tollets went.


4th November 1810, Sunday

A long walk.


5th November 1810, Monday

I went with Papa in the carriage  to take Colonel Sherret as far as Newcastle. Mr Butt dined here.


6th November 1810, Tuesday

Mr Butt went.


9th November 1810, Friday

Miss S Wedgwood came. I went out. 


10th November 1810, Saturday

Came home.


12th November 1810, Monday

Went with Miss S Wedgwood to Newcastle.  Mama, Papa, Eliza to Nantwich.


13th November 1810, Tuesday

They returned.


14th November 1810, Wednesday

The Assembly, I did not go.


15th November 1810, Thursday

Went to Maer.


26th November 1810

Went to Parkfield.


28th November 1810

Returned to Maer.


Page 44


1st December 1810, Saturday

Came home from Maer.


6th December 1810 

Went with Mary to Betley,  Miss Bentley, Miss Dumaresq, Mrs Ed Tomkinson, Eliza Bent.


7th December 1810

E Bent went.


9th December 1810

Mrs Tomkinson went.


11th December 1810

Returned home.


12th December 1810

Emma, Eliza and my Aunt  went  to  Eton.


13th December 1810

Eliza Wedgwood came.


15th December 1810

Called on Mrs Rawson at Basford.


18th December 1810

Mr Wood, Mrs E.W. and Mr Brettell dined here.


19th December 1810

Charles Wedgwood came.


20th December 1810

Eliza and Charles went. 




[letter inserted]


7th Sept 1831

Letter to Arthur Cuthbert Marsh, Kelburne. 

Mr A Gridau[?] presents his compliments to Mr Marsh and would be obliged by his informing Mr G whether he has been able  to find the Deed of Assignment respecting the 1333.6.8 Reduced Annuities and in whose names the Deed statnds.

New Broad Street [?]

7th Sept 1831

Pencil poem on back. 

But she hath washed them with her folly.. 

Thou with no..


Pencil sketch of an old church. 


Page 45




Caractere du Prince Potemkin.


Je vois un commandant d'armees [le prince Potemkin] qui a l'air parasseus et qui travaille sans cesse qui n'a d'autre bureaur que ses genout d'autre peine que ses doigts, toujours couche et ne dormant ni jour ni nuit parce que son jele pour la souverain qu'ill adore l'agite tourjours et qu'un coup de Canon qu'il n'essuie as l'inquiete par l'idee qu'il coute la vie a quelquesuns de ses soldats. Peusent pour les autres brave pour lui meme, s'arretant sous le plus grand feu d'une  battrie pour y donner ses ordres cependent plus Hlysse qu Achille, inquiet avant tous les dangers gai quand il y est, malheureuse a force d'etre heureus blasé sur tout se degoutant aisement morose, inconstant, philosophe profond minister habile, politque sublime, on enfant de dix ans, point vindicatif demandant pardon d'un chagrin qu'il a cause repasant vite une  injustice croyant aimer  Dieu anignant le diable qu'il s'imagine etre enerve plus grand et plus gros qu'un prince Potemkin, d'une main


Page 46 - 51 - French transcription continues. 


Emulation loves - envy hates its object. Emulation hopes, Envy despairs. Emulation is ingenuous. Envy is deceitful, emulation is engergetick, envy is indolent, emulation is the health of genius, envy its morbid disease.

Miss Edwards letters.


2nd January 1811, Wednesday

The Sneyds, Colonel Dobson and Jos Wedgwood dined. 


3rd January 1811, Thursday

The Sneyds, Colonel Dobson left us. Mr John Heathcote dined here. 


4th January 1811, Friday

Mr J.  Heathcote went.


5th January 1811, Saturday

The Wedgwoods left us.


9th January 1811, Wednesday

The Assembly.


11th January 1811, Friday

S. Wedgwood, Mr Butt came.


12th January 1811, Saturday

C Powys came, Mr Butt went.


13th January 1811, Sunday

JSC left us.


14th January 1811, Monday

S. Wedgwood went.


15th January 1811, Tuesday

Cath Powys went.


17th January 1811, Thursday

The girls, my Aunt from Liverpool.


20th January 1811, Sunday

John and William Bent dined here.


26th January 1811

The Cromptons came.


28th January 1811

My Aunts, Miss Harwood and M Garnett.


30th January 1811

A and E Garnett.


5th February 1811, Tuesday [page 52]

[Be, We?] acted the [Houls, Hrouls?] busy as the manager, anxious as the actor, depressed as AC when all was over.


6th February 1811, Wednesday

My Uncle came.


7th February 1811, Thursday

Mr R Sherrett dined here.


8th February 1811, Friday

My Uncle left us.


14th February 1811

All our party left us taking Louisa with them.


20th February 1811

I went with Papa, Mama and my Aunt to Portfield. Mr Butt and Congreves dined there. 


21st February 1811

The Oranges, Robinsons and Mr Rickets dined at PF.


22nd February 1811

Returned home.


26th February 1811

Mrs Lawton called. Mr Ralph came.


1st March 1811, Friday

Mama, Papa, HEC dined at Stoneyfield.


2nd March 1811, Saturday

Mr Ralph went. 


3rd March 1811, Sunday

John Bent dined here.


6th March 1811, Wednesday

Book sale. Heathcotes.


8th March 1811, Friday

Assembly. Nigel Heathcote.


9th March 1811, Saturday

Mrs and Miss Furnivall, Mr, Mrs W Bent, Mr Walthal[?].


10th March 1811, Sunday

Mr and Mrs B [W?] Bent went. 


11th March 1811, Monday

Mrs and Miss F went.


12th March 1811, Tuesday

Louisa came home.


13th March 1811, Wednesday

Mr Wedgwood, Mr and Mrs J.W. dined here.


22nd March 1811

Mr Finna dined here.


23rd March 1811

Mr Wood and Mr Tomlinson dined here.


27th March 1811

Mr Slater came.


28th March 1811

Mr Slater went.


29th March 1811

Papa went to Stafford.


30th March 1811

Papa came home.


31st March 1811

Mr W. Bent dined.


4th April 1811, Monday [page 53]

Eliza, Emma, my Aunt went to Etruria to get plants. 


5th April 1811, Tuesday

Mr Butt and Bayley, Miss Congreves and Wedgwood dined and staid all night.


8th April 1811

Miss Wedgwood left us.


10th April 1811

The Lawtons, Mr and Mrs J Wedgwood.


13th April 1811

My Aunt, MEC to Nantwich.


14th April 1811

Mr Tomlinson called.


16th April 1811

I went with Eliza to Betley


19th April 1811

We returned home.


21st April 1811

Ed Crompton, Mr and John Bent dined, walked to Church.


22nd April 1811

Papa went to London. HS, MEC home. 


24th April 1811

Mama, HS, HEC to Ashcombe.


26th April 1811

Mama, HS, MEC and I dined at Lawton.


30th April 1811

HS, JSC, MC, Mama to London.


4th May 1811, Wednesday [page 54]

Went to Newcastle, called at Stoney fields and Basford. 


6th May 1811, Friday

Mrs Lawton called.


7th May 1811

John Bent drank tea.


8th May 1811

John Bent dined.


10th May 1811

Called at Lawton Hall.


11th May 1811

Went to the Review, dined at Stoney field, Mr Butt, Captain Jones, M Bent, Mr W and Griffin in the evening.


16th May 1811

To the Fashions, walked to  Basford, went on to Maer.


18th May 1811

Came home.


Page 55 


19th May 1811

They returned.


22nd May 1811

Papa returned.


23rd May 1811

We went to Etruria. Mr Wood dined here.


28th May 1811

They dined at Betley Hall


30th May 1811

Mr and Mrs C Lawton called.


31st May 1811

Mr Butt came.


1st June 1811, Saturday [page 55]

They drank tea at Burslem. Mr Butt went.


2nd June 1811, Sunday

Mr Bent and Mr Spode dined.


4th June 1811, Tuesday

My Aunt, MEC, MC to Matlock.


6th June 1811, Thursday

Mr Blunt and John, Mr Butt.


7th June 1811, Friday

We dined at Mr Butts, Eliza to Hartfield.


18th June 1811

The Woods, M. Eliz, Emma and Mrs Wilson.


20th June 1811

HEC returned. Mr Buttel


23rd June 1811

The Woods left us.


28th June 1811

Mrs Dumaresque Coape and Smith dined, loveliness.


2nd July 1811, Tuesday [page 55]

Went to Nantwich with Eliza.


4th July 1811, Thursday

Drank tea at Mr Sprouts [?], dance at Mrs Gunshers [?].


5th July 1811, Friday

Dined at my Uncles.


6th July 1811, Saturday

Play, saw Miss Parsons in Isabella.


7th July 1811, Sunday

Walked with Miss Mainwarings [?] to Dorfold cottage.


8th July 1811, Monday

At Mrs Garnetts.


9th July 1811, Tuesday

To Mrs Clarkson's, went to see the farce of the Bechia


10th July 1811, Wednesday

At Mrs Thomas Garnetts.


11th July 1811, Thursday

Dined at my Uncles.


12th July 1811, Friday

Returned with my Aunts in haste, Mary ill.

Mr Blunt at Linley Wood.


19th July 1811

My Uncle came.


21st July 1811

Mr W [?] Bent dined at Linley Wood, my Uncle went.


22nd July 1811

JSC came from London.


25th July 1811

Mr Wood and Wedgewood dined at Linley Wood.


5th August 1811, Monday [page 56]

Mr Tyrrol [Lynch?] came.


6th August 1811, Tuesday

First Race day, a good Ball. Mary ill. Aunt B staid with her.


7th August 1811, Wednesday

Second Race Play, the Honeymoon. Sat by EP [CP?]


8th August 1811, Thursday

Third Race Day, did not go.


9th August 1811, Friday

My Aunt went a long walk with J to see prospects.


10th August 1811, Saturday

Lady Stafford, Lady C Gower called.


12th August 1811, Monday

Mr Lynch went. To Aqualate, Cromptons breakfasted here.


13th August 1811, Tuesday 

Returned, called on Mrs Thomas.


15th August 1811, Wednesday

Jos Wedgwood, Eliza, Mrs [Drewe Stoned?] dined here. 


16th August 1811, Thursday

They left us.


17th August 1811, Friday

I left Linley Wood with my Aunt and Eliza on a tour to the Highlands. We proceeded by Manchester, Chorley and Preston to Lancaster. I have travelled this road before on which there is little to observe, there are some fine views of the Nibble in the road between Preston and Chorley.


18th August 1811, Saturday

We walked to see Lancaster Castle, the ancient part was built by John of Gaunt, of this a large square tower remains. The Castle has been repaired by Wyatt and contains the prison and courts. The view from the hill is very fine, but the morning was too unfavourable for us to enjoy it. The Church is old and in the inside there is a carved screen worth looking at. To Kirby Lonsdale 10. Very fine views of the Lune and the wooded hills that surround it. There is an aqueduct near Lancaster well worth seeing. The Yorkshire mountains form a fine horizon, the whole of the way, the approach to Kirby is very beautiful and nothing can be finer or more uncommon than the view from the walk near the Church which overhangs at a prodigious height the close and finely wooded valley of the Lune. It is really glorious. The road to Kendall 14, is mountainous. The approach to the town very pleasing, the Castle a green hill in the neighbourhood has a good effect. The road to Bownes 7, is over wild mountain heaths, in some places finely broken with rocks and shrubs, the first [coup d oed?] of Winandermere [Windermere?] is not striking, it was nearly dark when we arrived on its banks.


19th August 1811, Sunday [page 58]

We took a boat and by the clear light of a blue and early smiling morning and in the soft air of 6 o'clock enjoyed a most delightful row to Waterhead. The lake is a fine expanse of water and the banks finely wooded and cultivated, the water broken by innumerable islands where the light shrubs wave and week over the water which breaks into the thousand bays of [their?] rocks on which they grow. The mountains at the head of the Lake are fine and their crossing and varying lines give a beautiful termination. I was in enchantment but to me morning when it is fine lends a luster amounting to deception to all on which it shines. We proceeded to Ambleside, then by a lovely ride to Rydale Water, very very beautiful, winding among the grass and shrubs at Rydale Hall, there is a very pretty waterfall of exquisite coolness. Grassmere is well wooded. I rather preferred however, the dark solitary melancholy aspect of Wyburn [Wythburn?]. Through fine glens by Helvellyn we reached Keswick and here the rain and clouds came on so darkly that the glorious view from a hill before reaching the town was quite obscured. The lake must be fine, the point of the mountains that break into it are so bold. [Skedding?] stands at a small distance and appears high and dark, the clouds were rolling in [fleeces?] round it, an effect peculiar to mountain scenery and more remarkable than sublime. Went to a stupid [?] museum, a dull man dragged us through a wet field to see what we saw very well before. Through rain we went to Penrith, from the high hill ascended from Keswick there is a fine view looking into the valley in which lies Bassenthwaite and down upon Keswick. On the dreary road to Penrith one only object was worth remembering, it was where the road was almost destroyed by a water spout which had ploughed up the road and washed away a bridge. Near Penrith the country is wooded and well cultivated but in large plains. This gives to all the country on this side near the border a peculiar appearance. I fancy it is not an anciently enclosed country and centuries elapse before the appearance of barreness is erased. To Carlisle, we went in the twilight and dark, the road is over green commons, very dull.


20th August 1811, Monday

From Carlisle to Longtown through a flat and scantily wooded country, from thence Langholm 3 ½ miles, from Langholm enter Scotland by two tollgates, the rest of the road is along the finely wooded dale of the Esk. The banks are steep and covered with trees and shrubs that hang over the river [remaining foaming?] over rocks and pebbles and bridges thrown frequently over it which from the shade of the waving[?] branches are peculiarly romantick. Pass Netherby Hall and Carobie Lea, the scene of the Ballad of Lochindar. Also Gilnachie Castle, the residence of Johnnie Armstrong, a strong square building. The road to Hawick till within a few miles lies entirely among the Cheviot which are merely green hills of no beauty or wildness, many of them cultivated with cabbages, turnips and potatoes. Near Moss Paul there is a fine view looking back to England, this we omitted seeing. A few miles from Hawick enter Teviot-dale. It bears no comparison with Esk-dale being little wooded and the glen not sufficiently filled by the river. Branxholm is a long white house only remarkable by an ancient tower, something like the points of the houses in Cheshire. Near this the Borthwick joins the Twist. We passed Goldilands, a cannon's tower on a height commanding the dale. And up to Harwick, this town is evidently ancient, one bridge at the back of the inn is very picturesque. In this first Scotch town I was struck with a general air of discomfort. The houses have small windows fixed inwards, more of the bay windows one sees to shops in England, the appearance of the people in the dark and dirty looking plaids was rough and mean, but heavy rain perhaps contributed to render this first aspect of Caledonia disconsolate. To Selkirk over a dreary moor. We passed a deserted burying place. There is something in the mournful solitude of a grave far from all living friend or mourner, an entire oblivion where every name is forgotten, that strikes a certain string of my heart in a tone most melancholy. Selkirk is wretched. In this part of the country however agriculture seems in a tolerable state of improvement, the turnip husbanding is particularly neat, the plough here holding the horse in reins, and in lieu of teams several carts drawn by one horse, the hindmost fastened to the cart before are in use. From Selkirk to Melrose, there is little of beauty, the Tweed so fair in song has here barren banks. Melrose stands upon a promontory, well wooded, the Abbaye is not at all fine, from a distance, indeed it has almost a grotesque appearance.


21st August 1811, Tuesday [page 63]

We went early to see the ruin and indeed it is magnificent, the remains I should think of the Church only. It is ornamented to an exquisite degree of minuteness but so finely proportioned that there is no heaviness. The pillars rise "lofty and light and small" and the Arch of the chancel from it height and delicacy is of exquisite beauty. We went up to the top and walked through the galleries that run round the [huth?] of the church, the view from this is the most beautiful. It is astonishing the infinite delicacy with which all the parts are executed, even at the tops of the towers, one may almost compare it to nature, perfect every where and not adorned merely for superficial observation. There is a tradition here of the principal parts and plans coming from Italy, at least so far as a traditionary story founded on this circumstance may be called so. The same exist at Roslin and seems to confirm Barry's theory on the origin of Gothic Architecture. A beautiful but tremendous ride by Galla water and the pretty village of Gallashiels leads to Middleton, thence to Bank House. Bank House proceed to Edinburgh, some miles from the capital are very fine views of the Pentland Hills and the mountains of Fife Shire and the Salisbury Craigs and Arthurs Seat behind. Edinburgh, here we diverged to Roslin. Borthwick Castle is seen at the distance of square towers, great solidity and little beauty. Dalhousie is a fine place, very well planted. The village of Laswade is prettily situated but a great air of discomfort about the women and children. The women do a great deal of hard work in the fields and in consequence are rough and course looking. Roslin Chapel is in perfect preservation except the altar and the figures of the Saints which John Knox destroyed. The architecture is ornamental to excess, but it is without taste or proportion and the whole has a heavy gloomy effect. Here I saw Bassorchinos used in the cornices, historical subjects were represented but not certainly in Italian sculpture. The Castle stands upon a high rock over hung with shrubs and the situation is remarkably fine, it must have been of prodigious strength, the rooms that still remain entire, which we saw, appear menial apartments and the only light comes through loop holes for the archers. Above there is a good deal entire which is still used as a dwelling house but we did not go into them. The Linn is not worth going to see on this side the river as the rocks hide the best part of the fall[?]. The walk down the glen is very fine, much resembling Matlock [Maltock?] on the opposite sides are the caves of Northornden, vast excavations used as places of concealment in ancient days of ruin. It was too far for us to get at them. I believe they are light by a [communication?] through the roof. Roslin is one of the professed Lions of Scotland, but is not in any single feature equal to many less famous things. The country as you approach the capital is distinguished by the complete want of that gay luxuriant peopled appearance that in general marks the approach to a large town, there is not a spot in the Cheviot more cold and barren looking than some views from the road within a few miles of Edinburgh present. It is true there are trees but they are all ill compensating for the general barreness. Here there are none [swathed?] by "Nature free and Boon," over the country, the fields are enclosed by stone walls and once or twice I looked from the carriage window without seeing a shrub. There are many magnificent mansions, about 6 or 8 miles from the town, but no trim boxes and neat gardens, that retreat of commonplace opulence which gives an air of gaiety to the country. The Queen of the North sits yet in gloomy grandeur surrounded by her noble Barons but with none of the luxury or gaiety of inferior trade to enliven or degrade her. The roads present no bustle, all is quiet and lonely. The suburbs are really wretched. It was now dark and as we left these miserable dwellings and entered the High Street it was like the change of enchantment - houses of prodigious height finely lighted, brilliant shops, bustle and confusion in the street and the sound of the Bagpipe playing national[?] airs with the new delight of curiosity in a new capital entirely gratified gave a feeling of animation and pleasure that I never felt before. We passed quite down this noble street, crossed North[?] Bridge by the Register Office and entered St Andrews Square. We alighted at Dumbucks Hotel.


22nd August 1811, Wednesday [page 67]

We devoted the day to walking about the town. It is divided by a wide depth called the North Loch though entirely without water into the old and new town. the New Town is built in perfect regularity both with respect to the plan of the streets and the elevation of the houses which are all of fair white stone. The streets are very wide and flagged and in consequence of the descent of the ground each one commands views of a fine surrounding country to which the wide extent of water in the Firth and the bold heights of the neighbouring mountains give peculiar beauty - in this respect if it had no other superiority Dun-Edin would surpass all towns I have ever seen to enjoy the dread magnificence of nature in the bosom of a capital is a privilege her inhabitants possess alone. Princess Street lies along the North Lock and is a mile long, the Bond Street of the place while on the ground floor perhaps above and below are the St Giles'es and the Monmouth Street of the place the plan of building upon flats obtains every where and adorns the outside while it defiles within. At the top of one of these magnificent stone houses may often be found every form of dirt and squalidness. The Register Office is at the end of this Street as you approach the North Bridge, it is a magnificent stone building. The squares in Edinburgh are not proportionate in grandeur to the streets, nothing equal to the finer squares in London. The old town is in direct opposition to the new. The High Street alone is regular and disappointed me this morning. All through there is the narrowness of old streets and their accompanying dirt and closeness, the houses are all irregular and dark looking and many (anxious cchpa ?) interesting for each has its story are seen among them. We then went upon the Catton Hill, those who have seen Barkers Panorama have a complete and exact picture of this view yet still how inimitable is Nature the effect is entirely different. Here is a monument to Nelson constructed in the same messiah taste that pervades like a fatality all the honours lavished upon him. Humes monument may be seen, it is plain.

HH joined up before dinner. 

(three lines crossed out thoroughly - maybe be heavy writing '.. never do..)

In the evening we walked again about the New Town. One of the most agreeable parts of Edinburgh is the confidence and liberality of its inhabitants, that confidence which allows young girls to walk as in a country town, and that liberality which does not confer (gentility crossed out) respect according to the carriage but the person. Chiefly of small fortune and refined taste the people have learnt to distinguish between wealth and consequence. The town is at this season thin and the carriages very remarkably few. Nor does the general air of the better classes equal the elegance of London rank but then there is nothing in the lower orders that the least recalls the meanness, pertness and affected superiority of London cockays to use an immense vulgarism. The people in the shops have a manner perfectly insinuating.


23rd August 1811, Thursday [page 70]

We employed the morning in a walk to Leith. This side of the town has more the air of trade than the southern, though I should think it but small. Leith Walk is edged on each side by small shops like booths, the people here are mean looking creatures and there are many beggars but these I understand are chiefly Irish. Leith is like all little ports, wretched, dirty and noisy and exactly what I most dislike. The tide was out but from the Pier there is a very fine view down the Firth and of the opposite mountains of Fife Shire. We returned home and then walked down again to see the 42nd embark for Tilbury Fort. I expected to see a good deal of national enthusiasm on the occasion here, however I was disappointed that enthusiasm I fancy is too often but imagined. The Regiment however were well worth seeing, a finer set of men I never beheld, the dark expressive countenance, the serious dignity of the Gael strongly contrasts with the common place of common countenances and the waving black plumes that give infinite grace to their appearance and the (nature?) and the national dress conspire to make it a fine and uncommon spectacle. There were some women weeping bitterly and friends walking arm in arm for the last time. From what I saw I should imagine an embarkation for foreign service the most affecting sight in the world. Sir Sidney Smith was here, his countenance is dark and pleasing rather than heroic, his figure small and square. I saw him very near, he seemed much interested in the Regiment. The Scotch mob however did not seem moved with the warm enthusiasm with which an English one greets a hero, he rode home with little notice. English phlegm is nothing to Scotch frigidity.

In the evening we called to the Castle, it is now converted into Barracks and stands upon a perfectly insulated rock, a finer ands stronger situation I never saw but I lost the opportunity of examining the view, a Scotch band charmed me into the court of the Castle and there I remained till a thick mist rendered the Birdseye view of the town indistinct, the Castle stands at the head of the North Lock and commands both the old and new town. I forgot to mention that at Leith we went into the Fort and an officer obligingly shewed us the Barracks. I was delighted with the neatness, cleanness ordered  (densaway?) that pervaded every part, each room contained about ten or (twelve?) beds which are boarded with boards as white as snow and on which is a mattress which rolling up like a bolster (leaves, turns?) a comfortable seat. Over his bed each man has his accoutrements suspended. Each set of men have their different mess sufficient to (lay?) a pound of meat each a day is subtracted from their pay and the meat is divided with great fairness among them. The Officer goes round at dinner time to see that all is right and to listen to any complaints that may be made. His was a corps of artillery. We went and saw the horses the ordinance and cars for the men all in beautiful order. We saw a Cannonade of 13 pounders which is of (rough?) it can only be loaded with a 16lb of powder, the weight of gt ball, and therefore does not carry so far as it might. 12 pounders are the guns most in use and are loaded with a 12 lb of powder. Paul Jones took this fort in his time.


24th August 1811, Friday [page 73]

The morning proved rainy. H. Holland took us to the Society's rooms to see the islandic (Icelandic?) specimens. Sir George McKenzie joined us here, plain in his dress and manner as the wisest philosopher, he appears to have greatly too much good humour and gaiety to waste upon mineralogical pursuits. As the specimens were collected chiefly with a view to geological discourse they are little interesting to me. And the views which we saw cannot from the nature of the country be either beautiful or curious to an unscientific eye. I amused myself with looking at Riddels comparative view of the mountain and was surprised to find how greatly the eye is deceived in heights. I was likewise astonished to find how low Vesuvius and how high Etna ranked in the scale.

We took a coach and went to Holyrood through the Argate (Cowgate?) and other old streets. Holyrood lies at the west of the old town, it is a large and magnificent building forming a hollow square, on one side is the chapel entirely in ruins. We first saw the Grand Council room where the peers for Scotland are now elected. It is hung round with the pictures of all the Scottish kings, a few only of the later ones are portraits. Here is one of poor Mary that has been much defaced by Cromwell's soldiers when quartered here. This really seems to make it more interesting, one would fancy her in tears. There are many fine portraits in the suite of apartments you afterwards pass through. One of Darnley, a weak looking tall thin man, two most lovely pictures of Nel Gwyn and Jane Shore. One of Mary in mourning. The bed chamber is too well pictured in Robertson to need an inferior attempt. The furniture of all these rooms in the french taste seem to prove the fondness with which Mary remembered and retained every trace of that nation where all of her life she only was happy. In a work box of the queen's own embroidery we were shewn a portrait painted with exquisite delicacy but a copy only and with little character or expression. No portrait here gives the least idea of the lovely face represented by a print in some of the (cobhous?) Humes England. I don't know where the original is. On the table in the room where she supped on the fatal night was some armour of a weight which almost staggers the belief of its ever being worn. In the apartments appropriated to the French Princes we saw a portrait of the Duchess D'Angouleme which I cannot and will not believe like her, so fat so flat, so contented a countenance would destroy all the interest of its story. There is here a good portrait of Madame Elizabeth painted by a German lady. I say good for they say it is very like and many would say beautiful for the details are executed with infinite delicacy, but there is no character and no grace and to tell me a feather is so very like a feather you might mistake it for one is to excite in me little admiration and no pleasure. A print of the Prince de Conde interested me a thousand times more. Here we saw a picture painted by Madame Elizabeth in the Temple, the interest of the story would blind the eye of criticism in tears but it does not require partiality. In Lady E Murray's apartments there are some pictures worth looking at. In Lord Bredalbone's none except the monkey faces of the Royal family of Denmark may be called so. As I walked home with Stamford we passed the gate way through which Montrose passed. I am little affected by the historic passion and can tread renown places without emotion but at this place through which the greatest of heroes passed to mockery, to disgrace and death my heart swelled within me. In the evening we went to the Play. The theatre is a temporary one, the company were neither well dressed nor well looking, but the best of Edinburgh is in the country, yet I felt interested as many book(?) names were amongst the audience. The performance was wretched. As we came out we were introduced to Jeffrey. I was much struck with the intelligence of his countenance, his easy eloquence, the gallantry like of his manner and the brilliance of his descriptions, this man I am sure is clever and he is the first I ever was sure of.


25th August 1811, Saturday  [page 73]

We were obliged again to make us of a coach which prevents those views of a town that alone make one well acquainted with it to Sir Harry Moncrieffs Kirk where we heard a Mr Dickson. The place was perfectly plain as a meeting house in England. A tall man with dark hair unassisted by responses or even by notes began a service which the solemnity of the preacher, the silent attention of the people and the warmth and good sense of the discourse rendered more impressive than any service I have ever heard. He had a voice which most would call bad, to me it was awful, his whole air appeared was tucked(?) and drew attention entirely devoted to the holy office in which he was engaged. He gave a sermon and after that a discourse illustrative of it. The singing is led by the Clerk, all the congregation join and the double galleries give the voices a singular and pleasing effect. It reminded me of that attributed to Coselles cradle movement of flights of angels singing in the air the tone rising and falling with their ascending or descending motion. Afterwards we went to hear Alison. He is a favourite here. I was greatly disappointed, the discourse was common place, the delivery feeble. I never saw a more attentive congregation.


26th August 1811 [ page 78]

We breakfasted at Mrs Fletchers, Sir B Boothby was there, the conversation was literary and rather bright, but that brightness was evidently produced by effort and had nothing of the sunshine which affords (some words crossed out) melts the icy fetters of mauvais fionte and makes conversation free and fluent. It was also too much on the give and take system of flattery and I wanted a certain politeness which gives inestimable charm. But those who sit by without partaking of a feast of this kind are rather unfair critics. It determined me never to pressure upon being anything not even upon what I appeared to have the fairest claims. To disappoint with the smile of self approbation c'est joner un personage trop indienle.

Afterwards we walked about the town. Went into the parliament square which is in the old town in the centre a statue I have forgot of whom. We went into a house, the building of which was indeed favoured by the inequality of the ground where we stood, it was 7 stories above and 7 below us.

We dined at Woodhouselee, Lord Woodhouselee's, we were received and entertained with the finest hospitality, everything seemed exerted for the happiness of the received and not to gratify the ostentation of the receiver. Here I had alone the opportunity of viewing the refined and polished Scotch, the style of the house and table was in general the same as in England, the manners had the perfect simplicity and heartiness of former times with the refined polish of the present, I thought them very inimitable.


27th August 1811 [page 79]

We left Edinburgh with H.H. The road lies through a well cultivated and wooded country, the Pentland hills form a fine horizon, pass Middery Castle, the form a plain square with the remains of lighter buildings at the top. This form which must make them impregnable is universal all over this part of the country. The Ochill mountains lie at some distance to the right. A nobleman some thirty years ago got silver enough out of his lead miens in these hills to make a service of plate. At some distance from Linlithgow the palace appears, it is situated at the top of a hill hung with wood and at the bottom a small loch. As we walked to the palace a shower of rain sent us into the first Scotch cottage I had entered. There was every thing of dirt and discomfort and confusion that can be imagined. There is a fountain stands in the street of a very ruinous construction bit it is not ancient, being the exact copy of one that stood there before it by a man with one hand. The palace is built round a square and appears to have been constructed at different times. One part was built by James the 6th. The building is rather magnificent than pleasing, the architecture is of a very mixed kind. The ruin of the (Pasban?) chamber is fine and the chamber which is shewn as the one where unhappy Mary was born commands a very pretty view of the Loch below. The church is of the simple unornamented Gothic. Here you are shewn the place where the spectre appeared to James 4th. We observed the curious custom of painting black tears upon the pillars near a grave which disagreeably reminded me of the flames painted on the dress of the victims of the inquisition.

From Linlithgow to Sterling you pass through Falkirk and then enjoy one of the loveliest views in the world for all the rest of the way everything most beautiful in nature conspires to adorn the lovely valley through which the Forth runs, a luxuriant country well cultivated and wooded, bounded by most noble mountains and watered by a magnificent river with various ruins scattered here and there which much improve and add the charm of association to nature. This country must long have been cultivated, there is an appearance of great antiquity about the enclosures, gateposts &c. Pass Bannockburn of which there is no trace, and the Carron iron works smoke away about a mile from the road, but strangers are not permitted to see them. The approach to towering Sterling is very fine, it was moonlight when we arrived and instantly went to the castle, built on a rock of gigantic sized height and commanding the entire country as far as Edinburgh on one side and (Benventichor?) the other. A scene unequalled by imagination, unrivalled by reality, the most glorious and perfect landscape of extent that the eye can behold or the heart conceive by a clear bright moonlight that gave even the distance, it is impossible to give an idea to those who have not seen it, those who have will need no remembrancer.


28th August 1811 [page 82]

Early in the morning we left Stirling for Callander, before setting out however, we again went to the Castle. The morning was dim which prevented our seeing the very fine horizon of which Ben Ledi a distinguishing point. We mistook the road and took a very dull one as far as Doune(?), the right one lies by Blair Drummond, the seat of Lord Hames. At Doune there is a castle beautifully situated, it is much in ruins but appears considerable. The road from hence to Callander is interesting, leaving cultivation at Blair Drumond enter upon a wild country. The Leith dark broad and rapid runs often near the road and adds much to the beauty of the scenery. Callander the first mountain town we entered is built in a long kind of street, the houses are small but neat looking. We alighted at an excellent inn, but wanting in many things that we esteem in England indispensible. After breakfast we passed over a fine wild country to the Lochs. Some cottages that we passed were the most wild and desolate habitations that it ever entered into the heart of man to imagine. Loch Venachar is long, wide and gloomy, the mountains on the opposite side towering(?) and barren, and here it began to rain with a violence which obscured every beauty and left us to guess with grief and impatience what the rest of these lovely lakes might have been. Lock Achray with its wild and weeping underwood is soft and lovely. Before we entered the Trossachs we stopped at a wild place built by one Stewart for the accommodation of travelers. I did not go in which I regretted afterwards. I like to confess the truth, the truth is then that the Trossachs disappointed me. And Lock Katrine herself was so entirely different from what I expected that surprise and disappointment were upper most in my mind. Unaccustomed to mountain scenery I had expected something more gigantic and awe striking in the rocks and more beauty and verdure in the trees and banks. The mountains that bend round the Loch appear piles of rocks and stones and heath and underwood all thrown by the wild hand of nature in confusion. The lake is long and the view down it very fine but we were not in the boat two minutes before it began again to rain with intolerable violence. We clambered up a steep woody bank to a little rock house and there sat starved and shivering till it was time to return. This Stamford and I did by coasting the lake to the road and here could I but have looked with pleasure wet and weary as I was I should have seen some of the loveliest views in nature. The large island, the bay and promontory are so beautifully wooded and broken. The Trossachs is a deep defile between rocks not as is perpendicular but enormous heaps of broken rocks, heaps that in the (vois?) of the giants might have been hurled towards heaven and fallen there. Stamford and I walked home. It was a dreadful walk, the mountain torrents foaming from the hills make the road almost impassable and the labour was incredible. Fear of passing these precipices in the dark and an ill defined wish to walk all the way led me on. The result was extreme fatigue and a determination never to do so absurd a thing again. But the excessive kindness of the naked footed highland women when they put me to bed, the softness of their tones, the tenderness of their expressions and their careful watchfulness gave me an opinion of the Gaelic character which I hope I shall never forget. The road to Loch Katrine is rough and tremendous. These lakes here but lately been discovered to travelers thirty years ago, the inhabitants in their vicinity imagined the Stewarts were still on the throne of Scotland. At Callander we saw all the children in kilts.


29th August 1811

Leaving Callander we proceeded to Loch Eamhead. The way lies up the pass of Lennie (Leny?). The entrance is formed on one side by the majestic Ben Ledi. Swollen by the rain the Firth ran foaming down the narrow pass swift as an arrow dashing and breaking amid the rocks in one continual succession of waterfalls, overhung by brush wood and wild Horns(?). Stamford got us down the steep descent and placed upon a little point that jutted into the torrent. I beheld one of the most beautiful forms of river scenery but the deafening noises and rapid motion of the flood before me made the price of pleasure dizziness and alarm. Farther up the pass the road leads by Loch Lubnaig, surrounded by mountains covered with oak and the little valley well cultivated, a scene of great pastoral beauty. They were making hay, we only saw women at work who were tossing the grass about with their hands. In this valley is the house where Bruce wrote his Abyssinia. The wood all here abouts is chiefly oak and appears like small shoots from larger trees cut down. It is impossible to imagine anything more truly and uninterruptedly picturesque than the scenery here, the face of nature, the cottages, dress and manners of the inhabitants, the very cattle and dogs all are wild and romantick.

As we approached Loch Eamhead the country became more wild and barren and almost entirely divested of trees. Loch Eam is a lake of great extent but the mountains surrounding it are not particularly bold nor wooded. The village is wild and the house was uncomfortable, in my bed room there was a hole through the wall which admitted both light and air sufficient to starve me completely. The rest of the party went to see a waterfall in Lord Bredablanes grounds. I was too ill to stir.


30th August 1811 [page 88]

We left Loch Eamhead and travelled along the side of the lake for about seven miles to its terminus. We passed Dun Ira, Lord Melvilles prodigious plantations have been made and the situation is truly beautiful. We breakfasted at Comrie at a new inn. From thence we walked to Lord Melvilles grounds and up a beautiful glen to see a cascade called the Devils Cauldron. A narrow cleft in the rock down which the river bursts like a torrent of snow foaming against the lofty sides of the barrier. The Creiff is 4 miles from Comrie and seems a considerable Highland town. Here is a fine view towards Perth, or rather a view down a fine cultivated shaft, rather comfortable than lovely. After leaving Crieff there is a remarkably fine view from a hill looking down on the grounds of Ochtertyre, Sir D Bands. The country now becomes one barren track of mountain moor with nothing of beauty to distinguish it until by a tremendous descent the road at once enters Glen Almond. Two frowning mountains, black and barren cast their shadows upon the entrance rendering it still more gloomy and terrific. All is dark and lonely, no living thing, no waving tree, nothing but the sound of the footsteps and the running of the river there all alone undistracted and unvisited his Ossian a green mound and a huge stone surrounded by a turf wall moat his low and lonely urn. "As I thrown myself on the grave of the mountain poet here reposing peaceful in their bosom, I almost longed for a grave like his amid the solitude and quiet of the desert."

Leaving the glen and passing a few scattered hamlets and another barren moor we reached Anblane, one of a few wretched houses (adrift? Draft?) in this unpeopled waste, but unpeopled as it appeared it is not so in fact. At this inn were preparations made for a hundred people to celebrate the taking home of the bride after some months marriage. The woman of the house told us that the disorder would be too great to allow her to think of letting us sleep there. I went into the room and saw the splendid set out of plates and wooden spoons for the guests. The old people she told us would sleep in the house and the young ones shelter in the barns. We were therefore obliged to proceed to Dunkeld. The country must be fine at the latter part of the ride but it grew too dark for us to observe anything.

I am sorry to find on reading Mrs Grants translation of the Gaelic poem of the owl, that their traditions (turns? Sums?) against the opinion of Glen Almond being the place of Ossian's tomb.

On the turret of Famisi sit where the returning sun points his last beam upwards to the summit of the hill. 

I look on the end of Lock Trieg.

 The sheltering rock where the chair(?) was wont to be, 

I see the dark lakes dim at a distance, 

I see the mighty pile and many coloured mountain. 

I see on the deep vale the last dwelling of Ossian of Fingal.

I see the Hill of flat sepulchral stones.


It seems to me from Lock Laygan and Craig Guanich it would not be possible to see the Mountains of Glen Almond though the description so well agrees.


31st August 1811 [page 91]

The inn here is delightful, more clean and every comfort as complete as most of the best inns in England. We had a letter of introduction to Mr Irvine, the Minister. He came to us after breakfast. A man of wit, sense and observation. He walked all round the grounds with us.

Dunkeld lies in a deep valley watered by the Tay and surrounded by high mountains, one of which Birnam road(?) as some one says has never recovered its march to Dunsinane. Over the Tay the Duke of Athol has built a bridge which cost him £32,000 of which £4,000 only was allowed by government and the tolls do not exceed £5 or £600 a year. Before this it was a ferry. Fine woods of larch, fir and oak come sweeping down the mountain sides into the Tay. They are chiefly planted by the Duke of Athol. It is computed that if every tree allowing 1 in 3 for accidents were valued at 4d they would be worth £9 millions. These trees are many of them planted among inaccessible crags where the planters were obliged to be let down by ropes. This is certainly making a prodigious profit upon the land for the mountain ground lets only for about 2d and sometimes not quite a farthing an acre but the (cause?) in the valleys lets from 3£ to 4£-100. The Duke spent one year £100,000 pound though his income does not exceed £40 or £50,000 per annum. There are 50 miles of walk in the woods and 4,000 people kept in employ. The first object worth notice was Ossians Hall, it is a building in the french taste which hangs over a fine wild foaming cascade bursting over broken rocks interspersed with shrubs. There is not a (boise?) exhibition of taste in Britain. We walked through shady and beautiful paths to the (tumbling, rambling?) Brig a full over which a bridge is thrown, it is out of the Duke's grounds, it is a very fine cascade. As we walked back through the woods I saw a doe. They are plentiful here and quite wild but seldom to be seen after the dew of morning is off the grass. Mr Irvine took us to a high hill in the grounds commanding a magnificent view. At the foot of mountains cloathed with broken wood flows the Tay down a finely cultivated valley full of fine oak trees, the walk we took home by the side of this enchanting river exceeds in beauty anything of the kind I have seen. We saw a prodigious oak tree, magnificent of size, age and extent. As we came to the inn we passed the house which was poor. In the lawn are two larch trees, the first ever planted in Scotland and which were originally in pots put into the green house. Now they cloathe the bleak mountain tops.

We proceeded to Blair Athol, the road lies along a valley magnificent by its mountains and beautiful from the Tay running all along it. There is one remarkably fine view where the Tummel falls into the Tay. It is twenty miles from Dunkeld to Blair. This road the Duke travels twice a year with all his followers including cattle herds &c. Mr Irvine had given us a letter to a Mr Stewart Merchant at some village, its name I forget, in order that he might direct us to the falls of Tummel. We found a (intelligent crossed out) shrewd Scotchman in a little shop, behind the counter of which he stood and talked with the ease of a man of letters which I find he was. His son, a handsome young man elegantly dressed prepared to be our guide. As we waited for him I stood at the door sketching the people who were chattering Gaelic all round me. There was a fine wild girl on horseback and several old highlanders but they seemed none of them to like either my spectacles or my pencil. Leaving the horses to bait we went on to Faskally (Fascalli), the Bridge of Garry and Falls.  The young man told me that corn was got in there sooner than in the Lowlands because there was less rain. All who can afford it send their children to be educated at Perth. The character(?) of the (Eise?) language is difficult, he said his father could write it but there were few in the village besides him who could. He told me too that they had a great deal of poetry in their language "that woman's husband that you spoke to was a poet." Faskally is a very fine place, it belonged to Colonel Butters, he died early and the house stood deserted. There is nothing equal to the desolation of fine grounds run to ruin. By a most charming walk along the Banks of Garry and over its romantic bridge he led us through woods and braes to the falls of the roaring Tummel. These falls are not high but the body of water is very great and burst impetuously over the broken rocks. An amphitheatre of mountains and woods behind contribute greatly to its effect. We climbed a high hill to see the junction of Garry and Tummel. Stamford and I went on too fast and got lost in the woods and fields, we came to the twilight and silence, I can not describe the loneliness of the situation, however we walked on and scrambling over walks and hedges at length reached the bridge. Here we joined our party but heard the carriage was gone on - by mistake. I think I never was more astounded. We stood at the entrance of Killicrankie in the dusk, without the hope of stopping the carriage or getting forwards and when Stamford and young Stewart sent back to the place where it was left in hopes to meet with it, and we were alone, my heart quite sunk within me. The Pass of Killicrankie is a road along the side of a mountain which plunges down to the river Garry. On the other side rises one still steeper clothed with wood to the rim. By this light the depth appeared tremendous and the gloom indescribable. The carriage at last joined us and we proceeded to Blair through this (temous, famous?) pass which the dimness rendered still more striking. At Blair we found very tolerable accommodation.


1st September 1811, Sunday [page 96]

After breakfast we sent for the gardener and saw the Grounds. The house is poor but one storey was batter'd down in the rebellion. There is little natural wood and that chiefly Birch. Beyond Blair the country stretches into deer forest, vast tracks without a tree upon them where the Red deer live for they shunt the covert. The Duke has a forest 90 miles in extent to perfect which he destroyed 100 small farms. This indeed seems a needless destruction of comfort, the poor people go to Glasgow or some large town or emigrate. A large deer forest seems a great boast. At this time of the year the deer keeps(?) in their sanctuary and only come out to feed at night. The sleeps in a circle, fawns and does in the centre (Herts?) to each point of the compass, two stand up as guard. When they feed one as leader stands apart and stamps with his foot to sound the alarm. The last wolf was killed in Scotland 120 years ago in the pine forests of Aberdeen. Every Scotch estate has its glen, the one here is most beautiful. The river Tilt runs down it, as clear and as yellow as the finest amber. With every shrub of the mountain (feathering?) down the sides of the broken rocks two pretty tho' small cascades, one belonging to Colonel Robertson is very fine. The pleasure grounds are chiefly laid out in the French taste, vistas, statues &c. We walked down to the house and went into one of the offices to see some stags that had just been killed. When the Duke goes to hunt nearly 100 men are sent all about to rouse the deer, he conceals himself in the hush-wood and shoots at them as they pass. We saw two fine dogs between the grey hound and mastiff. The same as the dogs of Ossian. At the house an open table is kept, any gentleman who wishes to dine there sends his name, pays his compliments, and sits down. The gardener was a humorist, and I think a bit of a Jacobite. He said there was many a good Jacobite heart yet among them. There is an old bed rid man that fought at the battle of Culloden. He is nearly Bedfast but his heart will rise at the mention of it, he never thinks he has got satisfaction for it yet doesn't that man. The Highlander he said, with fair play would have beat the English, but Lord G Murray sent three of the best clans a hunting the Grohson(?) a Fools errand, McGuires, McDonalds, McGregors. The Jacobites all go to the Church of England meeting house. Father and son at the rebellion usually took different sides at all events to secure the estate in the family. This ought to be a lesson to all leaders of such enterprises, that a bold stroke must be struck at first to secure the calculating party. Nothing ever in this case is gained by delay and everything lost by retreat. A first success and a character of good fortune must be on the side of an invader or it is impossible he should gain anything. Mr Irvine told us that the 42nd was a most favourite regiment here about and (the Marquis of Hartly crossed out) it is called the Black Watch, being originally raised to watch thieves. Promotion from the ranks is very common in it.

Leaving Blair we came back upon our steps as far a Logierait. I did not find Killicrankie quite so fine as I thought it the night before. Being Sunday all the Highlanders were in their best cloathes. The girls (set?) their hair tied up with hoods(?). These are ribbons, generally brown or black crossed round the head and tied on one side and were the ribbons less universally old and shabby would have a pleasing effect, but in general I must say there are few feasts in England I have seen where men, women and children are so universally well and respectably dressed. At Logierait we crossed the Tummel which is here an impetuous torrent and though it was in boats is rather tremendous. A beautiful evening and the scenery very lovely. The two little boys who assisted the ferry man were uncommonly fine lively children and one of the men was the handsomest I ever saw. The country all about here is well cultivated in corn which is ripe here sooner than in the Lowlands. We passed through Strath Tay to Weem, all this country very well cultivated and peopled.


2nd September 1811, Monday [page 100]

Left Weem which is a very comfortable house, I was a good deal amused with our visitor, a boy of fifteen or sixteen in his kilt. On our way to Kenmore we stopped to see the Falls of Moness near Aberfeldie. In my opinion the most beautiful we saw, they break from a great height down the glen over hung with every variety of underwood and formed by the broken rocks into all forms of waterfall. Kenmore stands exactly at the last end of Loch Tay, and is a decent village. The inn comfortable. Lord Breadalbane's property lies all round to the extent of many miles, his place, Taymouth is close to Kenmore. Here the Tay falls into the Lock. The woods are very fine, of the water it is needless to speak, but a vile french taste has done its best to spoil these noble works of nature. There is a bridge where the river flows into the Loch from whence the view is most beautiful. JSC and I stood here sketching for some time for the day was delightfully warm and sunny. I was much interested with the curiosity of a swarm of children just let loose from school who were pushing round me and twitching my paper to see what I was at.

Picture of a Bridge drawn by Anne Marsh Caldwell early 1800s possibly Kenmore Scotland
Click for larger image
Bridge drawn by Anne Marsh Caldwell
Was it at Taymouth near Kenmore?

After dinner on our road to Killin, we went to see the Fall of Acam in a glen of Lord Bredalbane's (Breadalbane). Here is a rude root house built and hung with skins of wild cats, foxes, deer &c. Those of the former were of an astonishing size. From a window the view falls full upon the cascade which breaks from a dark cavern hung with oak and birch at the top and falls in one full dash to the bottom. When the torrent is swelled the effect must be wonderful but now it was divided into two streams and showed the rock between. We got, with some difficulty, to the bottom where the effect is still finer. Returning to the carriage I observed two women without shoes or stockings and their petticoats held above their knees washing in a tub with their feet. The ride all along this Loch Tay to Killin which stands along the other end, is most extraordinarily beautiful. By the time we reached the end of it the sun was gone down and the sky formed a golden relief to the dark black giant mountains that rose on all sides. As we turned to Killin we seemed entering into their bosom and the effect was awful beyond description. About a mile from the town, by the light of a full moon we crossed two broken bridges over the wildest rocky torrent in nature, all (bruised?) torn and in confusion and by this twilight appearing still more broken and confused. The effect was melancholy for we seemed to be come to a world in ruins. At Killin we had very tolerable accommodations. I was struck this day with seeing a less comfortable appearance among the people, less of dignity in the character of the men and more of squalidness in the appearance of the children who were opening the gates for pence. But one girl threw nuts into the carriage and when I offered her money said "I did na want that."


3rd September 1811, Tuesday (page 103)

Mr McDougal, the Minister, breakfasted with us, he was a civil man with some faint traces of the beau lurking under his rusty black coat but there was nothing of the senses and spirit of Mr Irvine. He took us by a most agreeable walk up a mountain behind Killin from whence is a very fine view of the lake. At the foot of this I found the Spina Salicifolia. On our return we found several pieces of rock chrystal at the inn to be sold which the boys find or knock out of the rocks. They wished to pass them for Cairn Gorms but these properly are only found on the mountain of that name. As we passed the torrent and ruined bridge leading out of Killin my again on our way to Tyndrum I thought it much less striking than by the moonlight. We went to see the burying place of the MacNabs, but I saw little worth looking at. It consisted of four walls forming an oblong which was unroofed. There was a rude curious carving over the door. I looked through a window into it and could see no traces of anything like monuments. Soon after we left Killin we entered a wild desolate country without habitation or having animal to break the unvaried extent of heath and hill. It seemed as if we had passed the confines of the habited world and entered upon a heathy desert. some miles from Killin on the left observed some ruinous remains. Stone pillars with a kind of white triangular had to them. Farther on, on the right in the centre of a lovely little lake is an island cloathed with waving shrubs, are the ruins of St Killan's Monastery. The mountains of this wilderness are majestic and give a grandeur and interest to barrenness and desolation. I observed the roots and remains of large trees in the bogs and imagine this has been once a fine forest. Tyndrum stands almost alone in this dreary waste. The accommodations are certainly far from inviting but still are tolerable. Our beds were in two cupboards in the sitting room. There was incessant noise and confusion during the night.


4th September 1811, Wednesday (page 104)

We left Tyndrum before breakfast intending to stop at Inverarnan, our road lay through the same desolate scenery, the mountains unceasing in majesty as we advanced. A little before we reached Inver I saw a small lake on which grew a considerable number of fir trees. The house we at last reached was a wretched hut. And to complete our dismay at its appearance the only room was occupied as a bedroom by two gentlemen shooters. We got a little bread and milk, good enough and the strangers sent us a brace of moor fowl to console us. Then we wandered over hill upon hill through the same fine wild and craggy region "where mountains upon mountains hurled the ruins of an earlier world." There is one dark large called the black mountain, particularly fine. At a distance we saw Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in Scotland. Till we reached a lone house where all was dirt and discomfort and got a wretched breakfast. Kings house is16 miles from Tyndrum. While the horses rested Eliza and I tried to get to the foot of a mountain that was close by. I was quite surprised at the deception. After walking a very long time we found ourselves to all appearances just as near as when we set out. The ground we travelled over was boggy and stony with dry tufts from one to another of which we skipped along. There seems no hope of its ever being cultivated. There were cows however, feeding. After travelling a mile from King house we plunged by a steep and almost impracticable descent into the deep gloomy pass of Glenco. Prodigious mountains far above the clouds hang threatening over the entrance and closing it all round at their feet runs a little river and round it a few cultivated enclosures. Here in the bosom of the mountain was the horrid massacre committed that stained the reign of William forever and here with the Highlander we are tempted to execrate the man who drove the Stewarts from their throne. Were it possible to describe the sublimity and terror of this magnificent scene I would try to hold it up to my memory. The crows and birds seemed flying at the foot of the towering cliffs every now and then we fancied we heard the scream of the Eagles which build here but we saw none. All the rest was perfect unbroken silence and repose. In the middle of the glen the river forms a little lake. Passing by this the road takes a turn and then the glen opens to a cultivated wooded valley which was all smiling in the evening sun. Little shrubby hillocks and gay green of the fields contrast so admirably with the darkness and honor of the Glen behind, that I am tempted to call this beautiful surprise the best worth seeing of any scene in Scotland. This enchanting valley terminated on the shores of Lock Leven. After passing through so many miles of the barren solitude of heathy mountains it was no little pleasure to come again to a world of cultivation. I felt as if I was almost surprised to find houses and people employed as usual beyond this barren tract. Here at the head of the lake is a considerable slate quarry and a small vessel was lying before it ready to take its cargo. All this gave an air of business which formed a very pleasing contrast. We went about a mile up the lake. On the banks a good many scattered cabins. We stopt at Ballychulish where is a ferry to the Inverness side of the lake and a tolerable inn. A strange kind of landlady with more of the Irish than Scotch character about her made us very welcome. The house smelt shockingly of Fish but in other respects was comfortable, at least as well as we could expect here. The views all this evening when the sky behind the dark mountains was red with the setting sun were most beautiful. At the end of the Loch are the mountains of Marvein, the forms are very fine.


5th September 1811, Thursday   (page 108)

A lovely morning. We walked a good deal about Ballyhulis, all here about seems very well peopled. The inhabitants carry on a considerable fishery of one my judge by the number of nets drying on the shore. This is a salt water loch. The tide was gone down which a good deal spoiled the effect. After leaving Bullychulish the road we took lay by the side of the lake, the views all down which are most magnificent and beautiful. When we arrived nearly at the end we crossed a small angle inland and came upon the shores of Loch Lennhe. This lake is very broad with several large islands. The opposite shore is composed of fine rugged mountains with tops above the clouds. All this by the blue expanse of morning light on a very clear day, the mountains tented with the most (glorious crossed out) lovely variety of colours formed the most delightful view in the world. On the shores stands Appin House, Marquis of Tweedale, grounds fine, the situation is incomparable. Pretty nearly opposite to the island of Lismore I saw an old castle built upon a small island perhaps a hundred yards from the shore. Its size was larger than those I have usually seen in Scotland. We now again travelled inward for a short time and then came to the shores of Loch Creran. Here there was a ferry of a mile broad to cross. We were soon placed in a little boat and two fine handsome (gaels crossed out) youths, wild and spirited and active were in with us and we were across in a moment. On the banks on both sides stood too very neat looking white (have? Houses?) and the man who had the direction of the ferry spoke English perfectly but the others were all truly Gaelic. I was much amused with the scene for the large boat happened to be on the other side and they lighted a fire to signal for it. On the southern shore I sat down to sketch and looking to the side we had left saw the loveliest scene that can be described, the banks were finely wooded from the serene expanse of water and the mountains behind them melted into all shades of colour and distance the softest liens of mingled blue and pink under a fine calm heaven. I indulged the most delightful feeling of admiration mingled with surprise to find myself in this far distant land among foreigners and strangers. Children gathered round me and threw a profusion of nuts into my lap. While I was sitting here a boy of genteel appearance came riding along on his little poney, and as he waited for our ferry boat entered into conversation. He came from the lakes in Inverness shire, was by his dress, appearance and manner a perfect gentleman, and gave us a good deal of information about the adjacent country. He had been from Connel Ferry that morning and was to cross at Ballychulish and return home that day. His dress seemed to have been selected by a careful mother, but the independence with which he and his poney travelled alone is either a proof of general good sense in the management of boys of condition here or of individual good sense in his parents. He gave us some specimens of the vitrified forts (fosts?) after which we were very curious. After long waiting they at last get us the carriage over, we took leave of our intelligent companion who dragged his horse into the boat, chattering Gaelic to the women and children. One of these I remarked an old ragged looking cantingfarning(?) creature so unlike in all respects to the general spirit of the people that I suspect she must be Irish but what she could come to this poor place to cant and fawn for I cannot guess. We left Loch Creran and after some miles and passing the grounds of General Campbell beautifully situated on a high promontory came to the shores of a spacious bay at the head of which stand the remains of Heregonium. I know nothing and can learn nothing of the nations who possessed these gigantic remains. They seem buried in eternal oblivion and have left the work of giants to perpetuate their existence. About the breadth of a turnpike road from the sea rises what appears a huge cliff shaped into forms of (mole?) towers and bells, at the top is grass and the ground rises in artificial terraces one above the other and in the centre is a break as if for an entrance. This is what is called the tower, about a hundred yards to the North of this following the bend of the shore stands a single rock communicating with the other by a paved road. At the top this too is grassy. We clambered up and found here the remains of the vitrified (fools, tools fosts?). The only appearance of building was stones about the height of six inches from the ground placed in an hexagonal or octagonal form. Pieces of the vitrified stones were scattered, however, all about. What this substance is, whether artificially or accidentally formed is yet an undecided question. We could find nothing remarkable here besides. The ground was perfectly flattened where the (fost, fort?) was and the sides very steep. This is supposed to have been the castle. When we came to examine the sides of the great rock we found it entirely composed of pebbles and pieces of stone in a white bed which looked very like mortar. I think this must be an artificial substance though the work is so enormous, vast heaps of the same material had fallen off and lay on the shore. If this be really a human work it is the labour of a powerful people. These were no tribe of wandering savages but a collected society. I have been able to meet with no account of this place, or of the nation by whom it was formed. The situation is admirably chosen, commanding the fine bay and the adjoining country. I much regretted the lateness of the evening which obliged us to proceed before I was half satisfied. As we went on we saw many remains of trenches in the flat but of these my memory now gives me no distinct idea. At Conal Ferry on the shores of Loch Etive we found a neat house newly built. Here there was no bread but good biscuit. This is the first time we found the want of it though we were often at the last loaf. Bread is conveyed into these solitary parts by the post man, who travels on foot generally, therefore the supply cannot but be small.


6th September 1811, Friday (page 113)

Very comfortable beds. Directly after breakfast we crossed the ferry of Loch Etive. From the house were very fine views of the mountains of Mull which are grander than any I have seen. At a small distance, built upon a promontory stand the ruins of Dunstaffrage of which the remains are great. This was a large castle than any I have seen. They are usually only single square towers. This was a large building, more like the Welsh Castles. We did not go to examine it. It is curious that this and Besegonium should so much exceed in importance any other ruins in this part of Scotland. In Loch Etiva when the tide retires as we understood from the ferry man, is a fine fall that is very much visited. Travelers would find it well worth while to arrange their plans so as to visit but this we could not do. Our road lay but a few miles from Oban but from what we could gather it would not repay the trouble of visiting. We passed Bun Awe which lies on the shores of Loch (blank) and is a considerable village. There is much more wood and brush wood upon the road than we usually met with but the mountains and general scenery diminishes greatly in interest and grandeur. The inhabitants on this side differ in the form of their caps and in the building of their cottages from those on the eastern and interior part of Scotland. The cottages are roofed with ropes here. Their general appearance is entirely different I should be apt to suspect this difference is not merely accidental and that the maritime inhabitants of the western coast might claim different ancestors. In this opinion the peculiarity of their remains enervages(?) me. We came to the shores of Loch Awe. These were pretty well cultivated and inhabited. Loch Awe here is very narrow and the scenery not striking, at least after what we had passed. We crossed the ferry to Port Sonachan with the horses. I thought this very disagreeable. At this house we got bread and cheese. I thought it uncomfortable. One of the horses lost its shoe in the bustle of getting into the boat. We had to go on to the west village before this loss could be repaired. We therefore walked, the road lay through a copse where were growing abundance of ripe nuts. There was also a large plantation of firs and larches, where was a waterfall but the day being exceedingly hot I was so tired that I did not go to see it. Then the country became barren. From a hill at the foot of which lies this village whose names I have forgot. There is a fine view upon the lake. I believe Lock Awe further up is reckoned the most beautiful in the country, from its variety of islands on which are ruins. The country lost its barren appearance as we approached Inverary and became well cultivated with fir(?) trees and plantations and much more general comfort. A short way from the town we went to see a cascade in the Duke's grounds, very well worth seeing. It was dark when we came to the inn which is here good and comfortable.


7th September 1811, Saturday (page 115)

Inverary stands on the shores of Loch Tyne and is no inconsiderable place. We went to see the grounds and castle, this last built in imitation of the Gothic but with strange inconsistency, has got a glass door. At the Grand entrance, about which there is nothing at all striking as you come down the avenue, the rooms were in the french taste and not remarkable. The grounds are finely wooded, the trees noble and well placed, and the view of the Loch and mountains give it peculiar beauty. We coasted the lake to its head. About a mile from Inverary there is a very fine view back again upon the town. We went by a very old house belonging to, who I forget, but to some of the Campbells. It was large with many gable ends. The country all here is very barren. We stopped at Cairndow to rest the horses and found an exceedingly comfortable inn. Then we plunged among the mountains and came down Rest and be Thankful, into Gleneroe. A mountain seems entirely to block up the entrance into this glen down which a road was cut by the soldiery by means of its windings the descent is rendered practicable. At the top is a seat and stone on which is the well known inscription. As Eliza and I walked down we could not help thinking upon the absolute impossibility of subduing a nation in these fastnesses who had resolution to defend them. These mountains have no boldness, they are large without being magnificent. To those who have seen Glencoe this is nothing. We came down to Loch Long and then coasting it a short way crossed at the head and came to Aroguhar (Arrochar?). Here is a good inn and a tolerable village. About sunset we walked down the lake, the opposite mountains with the red light behind them were very grand. The road we took romantic in the extreme. I shall remember always with pleasure the effect of some girls and cattle that we met upon this beautiful walk.


8th September 1811, Sunday(page 117)

We left Arroguhar early, that we might reach Luss to breakfast, where we came down to Loch Lomond. The lake is narrow, the opposite mountains very fine. We passed Tarbet and were beginning to enjoy some delightful views when a thick fog obscured every object and we got to Luss no more edified than if we had travelled through London in November. At Luss the inn was full of company. We got but uncomfortably situated in a small parlour but cared for nothing provided the fog would clear. About twelve o'clock we got down to the shores of the Lake and saw an unrivalled prospect, the finest sun was sparkling upon the expanse of water and distant mountains. The town was all gay with people dressed for Church. Everything seemed smiling and happy. We went to Kirk and heard Dr Stewart. The place was crowded to overflowing. The service was monotonous and ill delivered. I was struck with the singularity of the preacher taking out his watch at the conclusion of the sermon and saying as the time pressed he would put the rest off. After the English service there is always one in Latin Gaelic. To this I saw a good many old men and women in the venerable ancient costume coming. After service we went to a slate quarry about half a mile below Luss to which the Tytler directed us. I clambered up to a great height upon the hill behind it and there saw this magnificent water with all its crowd of islands spread in a sheet before me. I was so high above all that I saw the islands as from a birds eye view and the shores all round. The infinite variety of their green forms, the tints of the mountains, the clear blue of the lake and sky, altogether it was the most delightful sight I ever in my life beheld. We had a letter to Dr Stewart and went down to deliver it. They were coming out of Kirk, he and his wife, a sweet lovely woman and a very pretty daughter. They received us almost with open arms and every kind offer and every kind expression were lavished upon us and they pressed us to take dinner, beds, supper, tea, everything. We agreed to drink tea there. I never saw such hospitable kindness of manner, such grace, ease and a nature united as in Mrs Stewart. Dr Stewart got a boatman for us to go on the water and apologised for not going with us as it was Sunday. We left them to take our row. For some way the water was not deep. The bottom mossy and as the water was perfectly transparent if was the prettiest deception in the world for it seemed a ground of sparkling emerald and gold. The most beautiful dwelling of the water, my nymphs, as the water deepened we last this gay scene below. We first went to a large island called Inch Tavannach. Here is a very high point entirely wooded, from the summit of which we saw a most beautiful view though inferior to that from the slate quarry. We came down and went through a creek between this and another island and returned most sincerely sorry that we could not stay longer. Between five and six HEC and I went a good way up a mountain at the back of the Tarbet end of Luss. The sun was set behind the hills and the reflection of the various lights upon the lake, mountains, islands was exquisite. We went directly after dinner to Dr Stewarts and spent a delightful evening. It gave me a very high idea of the comforts and virtues of a Highland pastors household. Plenty and simplicity in the ('household' crossed out) ménage and nature and refinement in the manners. I should think this the happiest life in the world and the best fitted to virtue. Mrs Stewart was lively and very intelligent and told us several entertaining stories admirably well. There is an island in the Lake in which they put people who are rather crazy or too fond of whiskey, for this she described some as having a passion which approached to madness and can be equaled by nothing but by that of the turks for opium. In this place all retired as it is, Dr Stewart has an opportunity of seeing many eminent people who come to stay a day or two on the shores of the Lake, among others he mentioned Burke, who formed an acquaintance with a humorous whiskey drinker of the name of Humphrey Colquhoun. Dr Stewart described his conversation with this man as infinitely entertaining. As we went home Dr Stewart shewed us the Comet which is excessively beautiful now. Loch Lomond is 30 miles long and sixteen (nine) wide in the broadest part, the largest island is a mile long, some of the islands contain wild goats and most red deer which swim from island to island. In some swampy places there are large serpents which are sometimes seen swimming across the creeks. The boatman's account of them was terrible, but I think exaggerated. Ben Lomond is the largest mountain on the shores of Loch Lomond, from its top Ireland and the Isle of Man are seen. It is not difficult of access and on it are many rare plants.


9th September 1811, Monday (page 121)

It is the best plan to row to the outlet of the Lake Leven water and thence to Dumbarton, but this we could not do. The ride by the shores of Lake is very beautiful, go through Linton, a neat and populous village. Here is Smollets monument, a pillar. All the country here is very well cultivated and peopled. Dunbarton is very striking. One large insulated rock with fortifications at the top stands in the middle of a plain. I ought to say two rocks for there is a chasm divides down for some way. The Clyde flows at its feet here, very broad and salt water I believe, at least it has considerable tides. Unfortunately the water was out when we were there. The town is large and prosperous. We immediately went to the Castle. Here are barracks for invalids. We were taken up a narrow stair case cut in a passage between the rocks scarce wide enough for two to go abreast. This carries up to nearly the top of the lowest point. The highest is not now visited. Sheep feed there and strangers frighten them down the precipice. From this lowest point however, the view is glorious. The broad Clyde and hills behind it. Greenoch, Port Glasgow, Foseneath. On another side the steep precipices of Dun Glass and to the North last the view back to Loch Lomond. Here you are shown the place where Captain Crawford entered, the rock he must have climbed is very steep and prodigiously high. In the Guard room when we came down they shewed us Wallace's sword of an amazing size and to be used with two hands and the skin of a Pearch(?) who lived in the well or many years without any known nourishment.


The Soldiers Dream (different handwriting?)


Our Bugles sung truce for the for the night had been cloud, 

And the centinal Stars set their watch in the sky, 

when thousands had sunk to the ground overpowered,

The weary to sleep and the wounded to die. 


We reposing that night on my Pallet of Straw

By the Wolf sharing faggot that guarded the stair(?)

At the dead of the night a sweet vision I saw,

And thrice e'er the cock crew I dreamt it again. 


We thought from the Battles fields dreadful array,

Far far I had roamed on a desolate track

Till Autumn and sunshine arose on the way,

To the house of my Father's that welcomed me back.


I flew to the pleasant fields travers'd so oft

In life' morning march when my bosom was young,

I heard my own mountain goats bleating aloft

And I knew the sweet strain that the corn reaper sung


Then pledged we the wine cup and fondly I swore,

From my home and my weeping friends never to part,

My little ones kissed me a thousand times o'er,

And my wife sobbed aloud in her fullness of heart.


Stay stay, with us rest, thou art weary I worn,

And fain was their war broken soldier to stay

But sorrow returned with the drawing of more 

And the voice of my dreaming ear melted away. 


The ride to Glasgow is very much the same as the approach to any of our large manufacturing towns in England. There is nothing of the dreary grandeur of Edinburgh and seated among her magnificent Barons neat country houses, gardens, plantations, hedges and trees all this is the sign of plenty, care and improvement and as such I suppose we must be glad to see it, though beauty and nature must vanish for ever. Glasgow is first as like the new town of Edinburgh as a house of two stories on a flat is like a house of three on a hill. The new houses are of stone, very regular.


10th September 1811, Tuesday (page 125)

Walked about Glasgow, went to the old part of the town up the Irongate. The Tolbooth is a fine building, opposite stands a fine statue of King William on horse back. We walked about the town to the green. I don't like walking about town, it was hot and dirty work (rock?) here and I could not look about me. We went to the High Church, it is a large pile, not remarkable for beauty, now divided into two places for service. The church yard is almost walled with ancient tombs and monuments. Went to the College, the most gloomy abode in the nastiest street I ever beheld. Black and melancholy and fit only to be inhabited by monks of La Trappe. We came here to see the Hunters museum. This is not opened till midday. They locked Stamford and me I into what they call the College Gardens to wait. These gardens are a large grass slope bounded at the bottom by a stream which seems to have washed Glasgow and is blacker than Styx. Down to this are walks shaded by dismal birch withering in smoke and one side a black wall that might confine hat works, such are the College Gardens. The Hunter's Museum contained very little to interest me. Birds, fishes and beasts, of course the fossils must be very valuable. There are some pictures. I was most pleased with the two beautiful illuminated manuscripts, Hebrew and John, the writing of these things is wonderful and the colours of the illuminations, particularly the blue finer than any one meets with now. I wonder whether the art is lost. What a labour these must have cost? After dinner we went on to Hamilton, the country is flat but well cultivated and wooded.


11th September 1811, Wednesday (page 127)

Went to see Hamilton Palace. The apartments are very splendid but one great house so nearly resembles another that I cannot keep a distinct remembrance in my head. The principal rooms are covered with pictures. I was struck with the beauty of many but I cannot now recollect any one but Daniel in the Lions Den by Rubens. The animals are reckoned very fine. Of this I did not attempt to judge. I thought them admirably well grouped and thrown round the figure of Daniel who attracted my attention by far the most. He is sitting on a stone with his hands clasped in an attitude of shuddering natural horror with great acquired firmness. His face is cast up with more of enthusiasm than resignation and little of hope. I have never seen anything pictured that so much interested and affected me. It is worth while to go a long way to see this striking picture. Hamilton is now occupied by the Marquis of Donglass. The road from Hamilton to Lanark is reckoned very fine, I cannot say it struck me much. A short way from Lanark we stopped to see Stone Byres, the first fall of the Clyde which runs by the road almost all the way. This is a fine fall but we are now going down the degrees of sublimity and perhaps are hardly inclined to do justice. After this a very high hill is ascended. Before reaching Lanark which plunges into a deep valley and is curious looking. Larnark is a considerable place, every one knows that just below on the banks of the Clyde are large cotton works. We walked through Lady (blank) grounds to CoreLian. The mass of water and breadth of rocks make this a very fine Fall, and the banks of the river are cloathed with wood, but it is neither so wild, so foaming or so turbulent as the roaming Tummel or dashing Mooness. On the opposite rock stands the castle of Iona. My Aunt and Eliza went to Bonnington (Bonniton?) Fall. In the meantime I walked with Stamford to Braxfield to call upon Miss Dales. After this we went to Cartland Craigs. This is a very deep rocky Glen which is seen from the top of tremendous height. As in all the others, a stream runs down it. This is very well worth seeing but when I think of how weary, hungry and sick I was in this walk and impatient to get home to rest and dinner I determine never to be surprised at the negligence of travelers. It only astonishes me that so much is seen by the fashionable and described by the indolent.


12th September 1811, Thursday (page 129)

We here parted with Stamford, he to return home, we to go to the sea. Early in the morning we set off for Biggar. The country is in general barren and poorly cultivated though with some good exceptions. To Peebles, the same, just before entering the town however, descending a hill there is a very pretty view of the Tweed and this beautiful town and church and castle. All the way from Peebles to Melrose is wild with some fine views of the Tweed. We passed Gallashiels again, and found as we retraced our steps every object sensibly diminished in size and beauty. Came to Melrose in the evening and immediately went to the Abbey. After the miracles of Nature even those of art appear worthless and insignificant. This sublime ruin was no longer to me what I had thought it on entering Scotland. As we came along the road this evening we over took a party of men dressed in black carrying a coffin in the middle of them. They were burying it in the Abbey yard as we came in. No obsequies. Not a word of regret. Not a prayer of recommendation to the traveler beginning his awful journey. As a dog without sign of religion or friendship the Scotch Presbyterian is buried. (x) ( I have heard since that the Service is performed in the dead man's room) The man who shews the ruin is very ingenious and has taught himself to sketch. He took us through a small house into his bed room where his drawing things were. Here were sketches executed by himself, some he valued at a guinea. I thought this a fair specimen of the character of the Nation.


13th September 1811, Friday (page 130)

Before it was quite light we left Melrose for Kelso. The morning was misty, otherwise the ride would have been pleasant. We passed Dryburgh Abbey whose ruins are, I believe, superior to Melrose. It lies on the opposite side the road. Owing to the restiveness of the horses we got out and went into a cottage. It was not so tidy as many English ones but not distinguished for dirt and the rooms large and light.

Kelso is most beautiful, on the banks of the Tweed and (Tevit?) which join just before reaching the town. Few things can be more beautiful than their high and woody banks. From the bridge and from the public library the views are very fine. Here too are the ruins of an old Cathedral, round arches, very ancient and I thought the architecture striking. We had only a slight view, being in haste. The ride from Kelso to Coldstream chiefly along the banks of the Tweed, though neither grand or wild, is beautiful. Coldstream is the border town. The carriage breaking, while it was mended Eliza and I went to the fine bridge across the Tweed to take our farewell of Scotland. It was a beautiful day and this delightful spot left an agreeable impression of the land we were leaving. I felt a good deal of regret that my pleasant expedition was over, yet I welcomed my own country with all my heart. The carriage joined us, we drove over the bridge and thus entered England and completed our tour.

Since I set out I have seen much. It has been chiefly of places on which little reflection can be made yet it has considerably enlarged my ideas and given me just notions of many things on which I was before much deceived. The general aspect of mountains and mountain scenery in general and of the lakes disappointed me. I had formed my ideas of the first from Mrs Hatcliffe who descriptions are anything but natural. Her magnificent mountains on which I fancied whole tracks of country stretched out in forests, plains, cliffs and peaks give a very false idea of a mountainous district which appears to the eye like wide plains broken into vast heaps of deep ravines but not like the prodigious contrived ascent I fancied. The lakes disappointed like the mountains chiefly from a want of magnificence. In the trees and precipices. It is of use to correct these imaginary views of things. Till this is done Nature is beautiful in vain. What I chiefly admire in Scotland particularly the Highlands, is the perfection of wildness; the eye is never struck on the fancy recalled by the vulgarity of common life; here all is nature pure and uncultivated and among the people all wild and uncommon; but this is fast wearing away and those who wish to see Scotland in its nature beauty must make haste before policy has converted the sons of the Gael into English labourers and manufacturers.

I do not recollect the stages to Newcastle. The country through which we travelled is barren and mountainous without trees or enclosures. We came to Newcastle about eleven at night.


14th September 1811, Saturday (page 134)

At Mr Turners, we went to see the shot tower and lead works and coal works.


15th September 1811, Sunday

To Chapel, called at Mr Nanlins.


16th September 1811, Monday

To a Laneaters school established here containing 500. To the Glass works. Called at Mrs Griffiths.


17th September 1811, Tuesday

After three most agreeable days left Newcastle, to Sunderland. The bridge, the Iron work light and beautiful, but the general effect much spoiled by the heavy stone work to which it is fastened to Castle Eden. Down Eden Deane, a deep magnificent glen, leading to the sea. It is indeed well worth visiting. We only walked down a little way. To Hartlepool, the works here are famous. (pencil sketch of a bridge or arch?)  but the tide being up and we in haste we saw little of beauty. To Stockton, a very pretty town upon the Tees, the place is considerable, the principal street one continual row of good houses. To Redcarthe, first part pretty, the last we performed in the dark. Here we established ourselves for a short time.


30th September 1811

Drank tea with a party at Mrs Yorkes. 


1st October 1811

Set out home. Carriage broke down. Came back, found H. Turner, dined, set out again. Through Stockton to Tontine Inn.


2nd October 1811

To Thirsk. Carrige broke down again. Fine country. To Borough bridge, in a field near saw the devils arrows about 28ft high. Large black stones rudely cut like arrows at the top. To Knaresborough, the chopping well enchanting. Situation old castle which we did not see. Through Harrogate to Harewood, where we slept.


3rd October 1811

Saw Harewood. Through Leeds and Bradford to Stockley Green, very curious country, broken into deep plunging valleys. Dr Thomson dined with us.


4th October 1811

Walked  to Halifax to Mr Edwardes. Dr Thomson dined. 


5th October 1811

Came home by Manchester. Found Jos and Charlotte Wedgwood at Linley Wood.


6th October 1811

Jos. Wedgwood left.


7th October 1811

Mr Rawson came to shoot. Charlotte and M Darwin went. 


8th October 1811

Mr Rawson went.


9th October 1811

JSC to Dorfold. Mama and Papa to Stoney Field.


10th October 1811

They returned.


12th October 1811

Stamford returned.


14th October 1811

Mr and Mrs Rawson, E. Bent, E. Rawson dined here.


15th October 1811

Miss Fletchers, Mr Griffin came.


16th October 1811

Mr Griffin went. Mr H Tomkinson came.


17th October 1811

Miss Fletchers went. Mr Butt came. 


18th October 1811

Mr Butt went, my Aunt and Emma to Bostock.


21st October 1811

They returned bringing Miss France and Miss Noble. Mr(s?) Blunt and John dined here. 


23rd October 1811

Eliza went to Southend with L.W. to see Miss and Mrs John Wedgwood. Miss Potts came. JSC went. 


26th October 1811

Dr Holland came.


27th October 1811

Dr Holland went on to Maer. Mrs, Miss and Caroline Crompton came.


28th October 1811

My Aunt took Miss Noble to Knutsford and Ellen, Elizabeth and Tom France came to fetch home Sarah. Dr H returned.


30th October 1811

He went. Mrs Crompton called at Basford.


5th November 1811, Tuesday

Dr Crompton came. Mrs Bent and Eliza called.


9th November 1811

Dr Crompton came to Bostock.


10th November 1811

He returned.


11th November 1811

He went.


14th November 1811

Miss Potts went. H. Crompton came.


15th November 1811

The Cromptons went. My Aunt L and MEC to Parkfield.


21st November 1811

Mary and I went to the fashions. HS, L and ME came here. 


22nd November 1811

Mrs Lawton called.


26th November 1811

My Uncle came.


27th November 1811

Mr Spode dined here.


28th November 1811

My Uncle went. We went to the Assembly, Lousia's debut. Brought Eliza home from South end. Mrs Lawton went with us. Papa and Mr L Bent to Liverpool.


1st December 1811, Sunday

William Bent dined here. 


4th December 1811

Mr and Mrs Jos Wedgwood, Elizabeth and Mr Carr dined here.


5th December 1811

Mr Carr and Mr L went.


6th December 1811

Mrs L and Elizabeth went.


8th December 1811 (page 138)

Mr Bent and Papa came home.


17th December 1811

I went with Louisa and Emma to Burslem.


21st December 1811

We returned home.


23rd December 1811

Mama, Papa and Mary to Nantwich.


25th December 1811

Xmas day, W Bent called on us.


26th December 1811

They returned from Nantwich.


27th December 1811

The Assembly, my Aunt and Mr Jos Wedgwood stewards. 


29th December 1811

William Bent dined here.


30th December 1811

I went with Mama and Papa to Parkfield. Mr Rickets, Mrs and Mrs Robinson, Major and Mrs Orange dined there.


31st December 1811

Mr Butt dined with us. In the yd evening we returned and found Miss (Grey, Georgina?) Leth at Linley Wood.



Lui sait aimer a la possibilite d'avoir tous les gouts et les gouts de tous les ages c'est le premier element qui peut se transformer dans tous les autres.

Il faut bien que les homes aient quelque fois occasion de lutter contre la nature pour connaitre les forces de leur ame et pour les augmenter c'est l'image de Jacob lullant contre une ange que l'homme luttant avec la doulear le corps reste loiteux mais l'ame est annoblie.

Il ne faut jammais s'approcher des defauts quiavoisines nos gouts et notre tour d'esprit car la contagion nait toujours desrapports ceci s'applique a la vertu comme a lesput aux hoses comme aux personnes.

L'on a dit il y a long temps que les objets es te ricars influoit sur nos pensees et sur notre carracture mais l'on n'a jamais assez pense avec quelle magilapensee et la charactere influent sur les objets esterieurs.

Quand on pense plus qu'on ne parle on sent  - (continues French page 140-144)

Penses de Mad (Fechar?) 


To sit on rocks, to muse o'er flood and fell, to slowly trace the forests shady scene, where things that own not man's domain dwell, and mortal foot hath ne'er, or hardly been, to climb the trackless mountain all unseen, with the wild flock that never needs a fold, alone o'er steep and foaming falls to hear, this is not solitude, t'is but to hold stones unrolled,

Converse with natures charms and see her but midst the crowd the hum, the shock of men to hear, to see, to feel and to possess, and roam along the worlds tired denizen with none who bless us, none who we can bless. Minions of splendour shrinking from distress, nonethat with kindred consciousness endured, if we were not would seem to smile the less of all that flattered followed sought and (seen?) this is to be alone, this is solitude.


Still will thou dream on future joy and woe, Regard and weigh yon dust before it flies, that little urn saith more than thousand homeless(?) - (continues)

Crabbes letes the Patron. 


Ah me for aught that I would ever -

Or ever hear by tale or history,

The course of fine love never did run smooth

But either it was different in blood

Or else misgrafted in respect of years,

Or else it stood upon the choice of friends,

Or if there were a sympathy in choice

Bar death or sickness did boy(?) seize it all.

Midsmmer Nights Dream.


4th January 1812

Mr and Mrs Lawton, the Wedgewoods and Mrs Griffin came to hear Grigletta.


5th January 1812

Miss Grigletti went. Mrs Wedgwood took me with her to Parkfield. Here I spent a fortnight and then a fortnight at Maer.


29th January 1812

My Aunt HE and MC came to Maer


30th January 1812

Returned with my M. 


1st February 1812, Saturday

I dined with ME and Papa and Mama at Lawton, met Mr Apers and Mr Hobkirk.


25th February 1812

Eliza and I went to Maer to meet Mr and Mrs Sydney Smith.


29th February 1812

A long and agreeable walk with Mr Smith over the hills. He is most particularly agreeable in a quiet walk. Eliza (?) on Jeffrey, riding on an ass.

As witty as Noratins Flaecus

As short but not as fit as Bacchus

As great a Jacobin as Grecefus

Riding on a little (black?) ass

In the evening with regret went to the Assembly, danced much with Dr S.Darwin. Just returned from Greece.

Stamford came home with us in the evening to Maer.


28th February 1812 (page 149)

The Crewes of Muxton dined at Maer. Went to the Church to ty the (pulpit?)


1st March 1812, Sunday

Heard Mr Smith preach. Had a walk after and then left Maer. He has been most agreeable all the time. I have never yet met one who approached him in power, eloquence and comprehension of thought united with the greatest candour, one who sees objects on all their sides from the height of an elevated genius. His reputation is more dependent on his powers of entertaining which are very great, indeed unrivalled but I prefer his serious conversation.


4th March 1812

At the Book Sale.


12th March 1812

Went with Mama and M to Parkfield to meet Dr Darwin, Miss Morgan there, spent a pleasant day and returned at night.


20th March 1812

Mr Butt, Mr Griffin and John Blunt came.


21st March 1812

Mr Butt went. Mr William Pembington dined here. A merry game at cards. 


22nd March 1812

Mr Griffin went.


23rd March 1812

John Blunt went.


28th March 1812

Went with Mama and Emma to Basford for a call.


29th March 1812

Mr Bent, John, and William dined here. Louisa very ill.


30th March 1812

JSC went to  Norwich (Nantwich?) John Bent went.


31st March 1812

JSC returned. Eliza Bent called.


3rd April 1812, Friday

JSC went.


4th April 1812

Eliza M and Louisa to Nantwich.


5th April 1812  [page 150]

M and L back again.


6th April 1812

Miss Wetherhall spent the day with us.


15th April 1812

Mr and Mrs Skerrett and Dorothea came. Papa [starring the?] Shorncliffe. Emma, my Aunt and I walked to Rode. A sweet and lovely morning.


16th April 1812

The Skerretts went. Miss Wedgewood breakfasted here. Mrs Lawton [ and Sted?] and took ME and myself to dine with her.


20th April 1812

Elizabeth and Charlotte Wedgewood came. Mr W. Roscoe and Mr Taylor dined here.


23rd April 1812

Mama, Eliza went, L M and myself dined at Lawton.


26th April 1812

M went to Nantwich [?] to fetch ME.


27th April 1812

My Uncle returned with them.


30th April 1812

My Uncle went. Mr Tomlinson dined here. 


2nd May 1812, Saturday

Elizabeth and Charlotte Wedgwood went. Great riots at Macclesfield, much alarm from the rioters[?] taking walkd and forming associations. [?] [difficult to read]


4th May 1812, Monday

Went to Mirtho's[?] to see the Cavalry and artillery going down into Lincolnshire to the riots, much struck with the sight and such feelings it gave rise to.


26th May 1812,

Mr and Mrs Lawton called. 


27th May 1812

Papa at Newcastle on the address upon Mr Percival assassination, Sir Thomas, Lady Fletchers, MrsRussell[?], Miss Wedgwood, Mr Walthall, Mr Sneyd, of Bradwell dined.


28th May 1812

Mama, my Aunt and M to Nantwich,


31st May 1812

They returned. Mr Broadhurst and son came to tea and staid all night.


2nd June 1812, Tuesday

Papa went to the nomination at Stafford. Sir J Wrothesley by Mr Lyttleton [curchdates?] for Sir J Lyttleton's vacant seat.


3rd June 1812, Wednesday [page 151]

Papa returned home. Dr Bent died.


5th June 1812, Friday

Sarah Wedgwood came.


6th June 1812, Saturday

Election, Mr Lyttleton returned for the county.


8th June 1812, Monday

Mr, Mrs Ellen Hannah[?], Frances, Catherine Crompton on their return from London. 


9th June 1812, Tuesday

They went.


11th June 1812, Thursday

Mama and my Aunt HS and M to Maer. Mr Wood dined, sat at the head of the table with unheard of bashfulness. Conversation with S in the drawing room on L and M.


12th June 1812, Friday

S.W. left us.


16th June 1812, Tuesday

My Aunt L and M to Matlock.


17th June 1812, Wednesday

Mrs Wood, Edna and Mrs Wilson came.


18th June 1812, Thursday

Mr Wood and Edward.


19th June 1812, Friday

Mary and Eliza Wood.


21st June 1812, Sunday

4 men Woods dined.


23rd June 1812, Tuesday

Mrs Wood and Mrs Wilson went, J.C., Mama, HE called at Basford.


24th June 1812, Wednesday

Edna, Eliza and M Wood went. Papa, Mama, HE and I to PF. John Wedgwood [dined?]


25th June 1812, Thursday

Mr John Smith, Jos, Eliza and Charlotte dined at P.F. 


26th June 1812, Friday

Called at Mr Butts. Mr Cameron dined at Stoney F.Home.


4th July 1812, Saturday

Mama, HS, and I called at Betley Court. Sir J.A.


7th July 1812, Tuesday

Sir Thomas Fletcher died very suddenly.


9th July 1812, Thursday

Eliza to Maer.


10th July 1812, Friday

JSC came home.


13th July 1812, Monday

My Aunts came. Walks in the hay.


16th July 1812, Thursday

Eliza returned.


17th July 1812, Friday

They returned from Matlock.


18th July 1812, Saturday

My three Aunts, Papa, Mama, JSC dined at Lawton.


21st July 1812

Papa went with Mr Robinson to Runcorn.


23rd July 1812

Papa returned.


25th July 1812

JSC to Maer. Mama, my Aunts M called at Lawton


27th July 1812

Mr and Mrs Lawton called with Dr Belcombe for the first time.


30th July 1812

My Aunts Anne and B and Eliza went to the [Rock?] house.


31st July 1812

My Aunt and M followed them. 


Page 152


Elle me condusait a penser que les touts des autres lorsqu'il n'infleunt point sur notre conduite deviennent un titre a l'estime mais ne sont jamais une excuse lorsqu'ils nous imitent au point de nous render reprehensibles. Pleusey mon enfant me dit elle pleasey mais no me parley point on voulent exiter la compassion des autres on s'attendait soi meme on passé on revue tous us mant s'il est quelque circonstance qui nous soit chappee on la retonnect elle nous bless longtemps [french transcription continues 10 more lines]

Adele de Linagas


4th August 1812, Tuesday

The first race day. Ed Manwaring there. Danced with E.M., Mr G Fitzherbert, spent the evening chiefly with Mrs F. Staid all night at Stoney Field.


5th August 1812, Wednesday

At the course, ['rather' crossed out] agreeable. F Heathcote S.W, Mr John Crewe and EP all merry. Play dull. In the morning walked about with Miss Powys. Staid at Stoney Field.


6th August 1812, Thursday

Came home in the morning.


11th August 1812

Mr and Mrs John Wedgwood drove over and dined with us.


13th August 1812

Sparrows, Mrs Wilkinson, Mr and Mrs W Bent, Mr Griffin, Mr Penlington dined with us.


14th August 1812

Mr Griffin went.


Page 153


Written in an evening of Spring sitting by Mary in the twilight and listening to the thrush singing near me.


Oh sing again, sweet bird of heaven

And pour thy varied mellowed strain

While twilight dims the shower of even 

Like a veil falling on the plain


Oh sing again the note of bliss

The tender call the thrill of joy

And soothe in such an hour as this

The impatient thought, the wearied sigh.


They song upon the ear of night

Come warbling clear and seeks the power

Who fills thy springtime with delight

And thanks him for the falling shower.


For budding stem, for leafy cell

For dewdropped and green wheat

They telling notes incessant swell

The offering of thy incense sweet


God who first called thee into

To feed, tossing and to enjoy.



He called me too to taste of heaven

To dwell beneath this azure sky

With that the feeling sent was given

To thrill with love and exctasy

He breathed the trembling spirit here

Alive to all of natures charms

Which greets her with the adoring tear

And live enchanted in her arms.


Page 154


Does evening draw her misty veil

And hang on every flower and tree

While crowding songsters swell the gale

To thee the sense is extasy.


[cross out - 'or does the awful thunder round, shaking thy inmost, while burning clouds aroar']


Or when dark hand clouds hang round

Which glittering tears of lightning part

The ['glittering flash' crossed out]  thunder and the deep resound

With shuddering pleasure awes they heart.


Or dost thou taste the breeze of man

When the sun flames upon the east

And sparkling dewdrops deck the [han?]

Is it not rapture to they heart.


Or in the growen heat of noon

When bee hums upon the wing

And flowers spread gaily to the sun

Does pleasure through thy pulses ring?


Or when the moon is riding high 

While severing clouds around her roll

O'er heavens wide starry canopy

What whispers to they swelling soul


Has God thus highly strung they heart

Mysterious rapture bid thee know

And wouldst thou from this seat depart [descent?]

And to the world for pleasure go.


The ardent glow, the generous fire

That Her'on has lighted through thy frame

Say shall it sink to the desire

Of narrow passion of worldly fame


By worthless hopes debasing cares

Say shall that heart incessant torn

By dryness chill'd oppressby glare

To mediocrity be worn.


Then wretched in its last estate

And  heartless in the path that's trod

Grow discontented with they state

And cast a murmuring thought to God.


Es from Tallean de la Litterature Inveuse dans la 18me heile. On of the most sensible books I ever read. Of the state of France after Louis IIV, to me says Cependent la vie oisive de la cour la conversation des femmes avaitat detruit ce caractere de gravite que les Francais avail at en jades [french transcription continues.


Notes in book

DJ 2nd Volume, Chapter 20

Surely there is an essential difference between the faculty of the mind which perceives the truth of a demonstrated Pross [Prop?] and that which decides upon the truth or falseness of a doubtful one. That which receives that 2 any of a ti are more than one and that which decides upon the truth of Rev.n or any hyp in Poht [Polit?] Oeco or some such matter. Else there can be no truth in that remark that mathmatics do not exercise the judgement. Yet there appears to be great foundation for it. Lockes Ohvision seems to me founded on a real and essential distinction in the faculties of the mind. I should think it almost as graet as the difference between receiving a scene from the eye or from description.


























Maps inserted in diary probably neatly hand drawn and coloured by Martin Marsh.


Two pages of notes in pencil. Philosophical.


On the giving of Mms St Mathew fromV1 toN6 Chapter V1

Romans 0 8 Chapter V11

11 Corinthians from v 5 to v 14 IX


 The Archbishop of Chassey

By a French Naturalist


The spring of 1841 had passed in the study of the animals of inhabiting the environs of Paris. The pools of Plessir Piquet and Mendon, the meres of Vincennes of la Glaciere,the basins of Versailles and even the dilites by the high ways had been explored. My little table was covered with bowls full of the waters I had procured in these environs. The aquatic plants which I had carefully preserved begilded[?] lasarintly[?] while amid the delicate plaments of the roots a thousand little beings were enjoying themselves whose existence and delicate organization is revealed to us by the microscope alone.

There was the rotifice whose body composed of concentric rings slipping one is within another like the tabes of a telescope carries in front two wheels a singular [continues next page10 lines.]


Pencil drawing of a flower.

Narcissus Jpconisarabilis



Page 156 - 157 - 158

French transcription continues

Qui ne vout pas que ces remarques s'appliquent aux Anglais du - [French transcription continues all page


Page 159


From Burke on the Irish Catholics Letter toW [South, Smith?]

I shall never call any religious opinions which appear important to serious and pious minds things of no consideration. Nothing is so fatal to religion as indifference which is at least half infidelity.

Partial freedom is privilege and prerogative and not liberty. Liberty such as deserves name is an honest equitable, diffusive and impartial principle.


Fermosi in atto che aonia fatto incerto

Chinneque avesse visto sua figuira

Sella era donna snetiona et vera

O Sasso colsito in tat maniera

Stupedio et fi [continues 5 more lines]


Page 160


It is with nations as with individuals they feel before they think. The progress of Society is from fancy to reason, from sensibility to truth. The passions which were formerly felt and delineated have since been surveyed and analysed. Men do not perhaps think more intensely in the present age but they watch their thoughts more closely, they are more aware of the false [transcription continues whole page]

D Stewart


Lock of blond hair. Folded in white paper.


Page 161


Pencil drawing of candlestick


In these vernal seasons of the year when the air is soft and pleasant it were an injury and sulleness against nature not to go out and see her riches and partake of her rejoicings with heaven and earth - Milton


Page 162 163 164


On reading the Lord Byrons Childe Harolde - 1812 


Oh what a weary heavy load were life

Without a God to hear the wretcheds prayer

A hopeless destiny, an endless strife

Gains't all the woes this feeble frame must share

In a bad world where none the suffering spare

Alive to every pain alone we tread

And unsupported all the burden bear

By no kind hand supported rais's or staid

Bare to the torturing wind, the undefended head.


[continues one more verse]


Page 165 - 166 - 167


For me but of dust and shall they melt away

Soon as the mortal covering shall decay?


Whenever there is a very large assemblage of persons who have no other occupation but to amuse themselves there will infallibly be generated acuteness of intellect, reprisement of manners, a good taste in conversation; and with the same certainly all performed thought and all serious affection will be discarded from their society. The multitude of persons and things that force themselves on the attention in such a scene and the rapidity with which they succeed each other and pass away prevent anyone from making a deep or permanent impression and the mind having never been taxed to any course of application and long habituated to this lively succession and variety of objects come at last to require the excitement of perpetual change and to find a multiplicity of friends as indispensible as a multiplicity of amusements. Thus [continues ] Edin. Rev by Jeffrey


He who hath bent him o'er the dead

Ere the first day of death is fled

The first dark day of nothingness

The last of danger and distress

Before decay's effacing fingers

Have swept the lines whose beauty lingers

And meshed[?] the mild angelic air

The rapture of repose that's there

The fixed yet tender traits that streak

The languor of the placid cheek

And but for that sad shrouded eye

That fires not, wins not, weeps not now

And but for what chill changeless brow

Whose touch thrills with mortality

And candles to the goyer's heart

As if to him it could impart

The doom he dreads, yet dwells upon

Yes, but for these and these alone

Some moments, aya one treacherous hour

He still might doubt the tyrants power

So fair, so calm, so softly seal'd

The first, last look, by death revealed.



Page 168 - 169 - 170 - 171 - 171 - 173

Il me semble que le Bonheur consisted dans la possession d'une destine in rapport avec nos faiubles. Nos desires son tune chose morer tune et souvent [ French transcription continues]


Page 173

Thoughts for employing Sunday

Selecting a portion of Scripture, a character type or miracle as a subject of investigation, collecting parables, texts upon any chosen topics as "the sin of selfishness' 'the advantages of humility'&c.

I believe that it is best to throw life into a method that every hour may bring its employment and every employment have its hour. If everything be kept in a certain place when anything is worn out the vacuity it leaves will shew what is wanting so if every part of time has its appropriate duty the hour will call into remembrance its engagement.


Page 174


20th August 1812, 

My Aunt HE and M returned home. 


22nd August 1812

JSC to Eturia, my Uncle came. Dined at Mrs Natrells[?].

The Wedgwoods John, S.W., Mrs W Bent, Miss Morton Mrs Parker, Cooke.


23rd August 1812

Mr W Bent, Mr Rawson, Eliza Bent spent tea here. 


25th August 1812

My Uncle went.


26th August 1812

Mr Holland came.

Some time about this the John Wedgwoods came to spend some time with us.


1st September 1812, Tuesday

The Lawtons and Dr Belcombe dined here.


3rd September 1812, Thursday

Mr Haygarth came. {Naygarth?]


4th September 1812, Friday

A long walk. Mr Tomkinson came.


5th September 1812, Saturday

A walk to Kid Row.


6th September 1812, Sunday

Mr N. Tomkinson went. Music in the evening.


7th September 1812, Monday

Mr [Haygarth, Naygarth?], JSC to Dorfold.


8th September 1812, Tuesday

The Wedgwoods dined at Dr Northens. 


9th September 1812, Wednesday

The Wedgwoods and party from hence dined at Lawton.


13th September 1812

John Wedgwood came.


14th September 1812

The Wedgwoods went leaving [Jane?] Mr Blunt and John came.


15th September 1812

The Blunts went and Mr and Mrs Clarkson, Miss Marwarings came.


16th September 1812

William Bent, Mr Rich?, Bent and Mr Walthall dined here. 


18th September 1812

The Clarksons and Manwaring [Mannings?] went. We went to Newcastle and took John with us.


21st September 1812

My Aunt HE, M. to Betley Hall. James France came.


22nd September 1812

ME. L. and I called upon Miss Belcombe at Lawton Hall. 


23rd September 1812

Mr Griffin called. James France went. JSC with him. Mama, ME, and L drank tea at Mrs Morrisses. 


24th September 1812

Eliza Bent came.


25th September 1812

My Aunt Louisa and I went to Bostock. Mr Croppers, Mr Brooks there. JSC at Bostock.


26th September 1812

Mr Croppers went. JSC went. Mrs Tapping called.


27th September 1812

To Church, heard Mr Brooks preach.


30th September 1812

Went a coursing and home. Found Mr [Noryator?] and Mary.


2nd October 1812, Friday

HE, M. and I spent a merry day at Basford.


3rd October 1812, Saturday

Came home.


5th October 1812, Monday

My Aunt, Mama, HEC to Chorley.


6th October 1812, Tuesday

John Blunt came. Papa at Newcastle.


7th October 1812, Wednesday

Newcastle Election, first Poll day. Sir J B---y P Gower, Mr Boothe.


9th October 1812, Friday

John Blunt went.


12th October 1812, Monday

Mrs Tollet, Miss [Hemming?] Mrs. Mr and Miss Wall called. Miss and Mr Wall remained with us. Dr Belcombe dined. Discussion on Blue ladies. We danced in the evening.


13th October 1812, Tuesday

The Lawtons, Miss Belcombe and Dr Belcombe dined with us. Danced in the evening. Elizabeth and Sally Wedgwood came.


14th October 1812, Wednesday

We all went to Mr Gilberts, met Mrs Tollets who took the Walls home.


15th October 1812, Thursday [page 176]

Called at Lawton. Dr Belcombe there.


16th October 1812, Friday

The Wedgwoods went.


17th October 1812, Saturday

John Bent came.


18th October 1812, Sunday

He went.


20th October 1812, Tuesday

Assembly. A gay and delightful evening, danced with EP. We had blue Robeson. 


21st October 1812, Wednesday

Miss Powys came.


24th October 1812, Saturday

Miss Powys went. Mand MEC to Nantwich. 


3rd November 1812, Tuesday

Mr Haygarth came. Mr Wedgwood.


4th November 1812, Wednesday

Mr Wedgwood laid out our garden. Mrs Fitz called.


5th November 1812, Thursday

Mr W took Mr H to see Etruria. We drew from his Grecian views. Long walk before breakfast. Mr, Mrs and Jos Wedgwood came, Mr Houghtno for one day. Music in the evening.


6th November 1812, Friday

Walked to Rosport Bank to take a stretch of L.W. My Uncle came.


7th November 1812, Saturday

The Wedgwoods went. Mama, ME, Mr H and I to Swinnerton. Met the Wedgwoods, Miss Grigletti, Mr Edls Lockley, George Fitzherbert. Gage [George?] and inn Mrs Eld.


8th November 1812, Sunday

Went on to Maer. Miss Griglotti sang in the evening.


9th November 1812, Monday

Came home, met R Gwin, Newcastle.


10th November 1812, Tuesday

Walked all round by Rode and Talk.


11th November 1812, Wednesday

Went to see Old Moreton. Mr Houghton. 


12th November 1812, Thursday

Bad day, could not go out at all.


13th November 1812, Friday

Mr Haygarth left us. Mama, Papa, Eliza called at Trentham. Left MC at P.F.


14th November 1812, Saturday

Mama, ME and I went to call on Mrs J Lawton. She out, went on to the Sale at Clough Hall [ Hills?]. Mrs Tomkinson and Hinchcliffe reflections on Egotism.


17th November 1812, Sunday

Mama and M to Eton.


21st November 1812, 

ME from P Field. Miss Grigletti C.W. and Marianne Darwin came.


22nd November 1812

Mr Gaskell called.


28th November 1812

Mrs Lawton called. Charlotte and Marianne went.


30th November 1812

Mr, Mrs, Sarah and Emma Lawrence came.


1st December 1812, Thursday

The Lawrences went. Mr Butt came. Papa returned.


5th December 1812

Mr Butt went. My Aunt to Nantwich.


7th December 1812

Miss Grigletti came.


12th December 1812, Saturday

Papa to Nantwich, we all dined at Lawton and took Mary Houghton, Dr Balcombe. Danced in the evening.


13th December 1812, Sunday

Papa returned.


18th December 1812

Assembly. F Allen for [lgt?] first time.


20th December 1812, Sunday

Mama and M from Eton.


21st December 1812, Monday

Dr Balcombe called.


22nd December 1812, Tuesday

L.C. and I fetched Miss Grigletti from Newcastle.


23rd December 1812, Wednesday 

My Aunt from Nantwich. 




Letter inserted on page 109

Miss Caldwell

Linley (neat italic handwriting)


Adelaide (visited?) but not at home. (note under address)


Now pleasures; a pleasure purchased with pain hurts. God in the world who sees all. He is strong who conquers himself. His is a friend who helps in unfortunate things. Who are endowed with virtue are (along crossed out) only rich plu (people?). He is not safe who all hate, the man is ungrateful who does not return/recompense a benefit, who does not know to be silent, is not able to talk. His father is foolish, who hates him without cause whom he did begot. He is a citizen who loves daily his country. Who is it if she (who?) may admire the splendour of virtue. Justice is the virtue by who good men are called. Nothing is lasting(?). Love of the the/ones country conquers. What is more base than avarice. (Compassitifs when explained by gran take May? Mary?). He is always to be watched. Death is certain, time uncertain. We know God by the works of his. All spring from whence they are born. The world is juena (?) with the - of God. All are full of fools. One death expelty awaits all.


Oh lordy lord where are thou, is what scene of all extending nature is they place, art thou with God and happiness indeed , or art thou slumbering in the quiet grass, all ignorant of tears awaits for the shout of resurrection to evoke thee and dry these drops forever.


File B 059




The Holy Spirit

Thou glorious sun, thou Lord of life and light. 

Whose golden beams tho' wide creation steaming, 

fill the blue cope of Heaven with radiance bright, 

On mountain, rock, plain, sea in splendour gleaming. 

Vast as thou art' faint emblem of that power,

what guides thy mighty course and oversiles(?) thine hour. 

Faint emblem,of that influence divine,

Which brooding o'er the dark and heaving deep 

Oh soulless mother, summon'd her from sleep, 

to form and purpose, excellent! Sublime! 

Less glorious faint emblem, of that all/dear/clear pervading ray, 

which thru' the darker mysteries of the mind, 

deep shades of guilt, of woe, of ever blind, 

pours on the twilight soul celestial day. 

Oh Spirit! Comforter! My spirits call 

visit, the mists of sin, the clouds of thought dispel. 


(Pencil version)

Faint emblem of that spirit all divine,

Which brooding over the dark and heaving deeps,

Of Soulless mother called her from her sleep

Called Chars from her soulless sleep

It  form and purpose excellent to thine,

Less glorious than that all pervading ray,

Which through the darker mysteries of the mind,

Though guilt, woe doubt and loneliness ever blind,

Pourson the twilight soul celestial day,

Oh spirit visit thou my spirits all

Burn here the mists of sea, the clouds of night dispel


Vast as thou art faint emblem of that power,

Who guides thy mighty overules these hour 


Thou glorious sun! Thou Lord of life and light,

Whose golden beams through wide creation spring,

Filling the cope of heaven with radiance bright,

On mountain (earth crossed out) mountain on earth and sea in splendour gleaming,


The Rev Mr (Martin, Justice?) Aldera (?)

Park Crescent,

JSC  Rofaiguil(?)

Post Mark - SP12 1831 Night 7

Red wax seal.


The Magdealene

Low kneeling over the saviours couch she bends

Where pale with toil, the pure, the all perfect lay,

While from her doselike eyes in floods descends

Her sorrows vain, sweeping her soul away,

And as the heavy drops incessant pour,

Upon those sacred feet so bruised and bare,

With the (dark crossed out) solt clasty rights of her hair,

Which that cloudy veil her beauty's broken (flair?)

Wipes them,while reverend misses, bitter sighs,

And penitential (grooms?) in sad confusion rise

She weeps her sins her souls unworthiness

The cares the grips of him, who dies to make them less,

The crowd around (whispers crossed out) in harmony whispers stand,

Indignant wonder in each bosom burn'd,

Contemptuous eyes the drooping mourner scarred,

With angry brows in dark enquiry turned

Knows he the master? She the sinner vile?

Daring entirely this his presence to defile.

(continues file B040)


Pencil picture of plant.


Mortalian of Mortals - french and english


Les peoples d'Evora, si duit au dessespoir par quel'ques ouvelles empois petions s'etoit souleve et dans la chalua, de la sedition il etoit c'etrappe aus echauffes plus parniel des plaintes contre la tyrranie des Espanols, des voeux publics pour la maison de Braganza on reconnait alars mais un peu toud, combine Phillip 2nd avoit manqué contrers regilottes interest en laissant dans un Royaume nouvillevirent conques une maison aupe riche et don't les droits a la couronne cloiei si evidents. Ce consi desation de termi aau conseil d'Espagne peur d'assure le duc de Braganza ou a moins de le renuire de Portugal. Ou lire offset pasuccamus fair valoi ses qualities nationelles. En effet elles n' etoient pas assu brillantes pour faire caucn du aus Espagnols qu' il voulent un jour entesprenadroit ate si faire Roi, mais elles etoient assez solides pour donne aus Portuguese l'esperance un government dous sage et plein de moderation sils voulerent cusmemis enterprendre de le l'aise leur souverain. La conducite ne pouvoit casuez au cun sousscion mais une Maire qui avoirait gardasco quelque tems au poignant dans les uefli il n'amit gueure pait, avoit un peu suspect a lepreoneir nemestre.




Page 177

File C038



[Anne's sister Mary Caldwell died 10 September 1813 aged 24]

Now began that horrible illness which never more abated, born with the patience and resignation of a Christian, pain and despair alike assailed in vain her unvarying sweetness and composure. She saw all the prospects of life shut up one after the other till nothing was left ['to a hope' crossed out] but a sad unchanging sickness that admitted no hope and little solace. Too weak to enjoy even the conversation of her best friends. The desire of life so long cherished at length forsook her and she wished to be no more. Her wish was granted Sept 10th of this year. She gave up her pure and patient spirit to her God and expired surrounded by her family. With that tranquility and peace which five years of sickness had so well earned. May I die the death of the righteous and may my last end be like hers.


Page 178

Tout ce qui tend a comprioner nos prenttes est toujours une doctrine avilissante. Il faut les ronger vers le but sublime de l'existence le pes petronnement moral, mais ce n'est point par le suicide partiel de tet on tet puissance de notre etre que nous nous rendons enpables de nous elever vers ce but nous n'avons pas trop de tous nos moyers pour nous en rapprocher et si le ciel avait accorde a l'homme plus de genie il en aviont d'aufant plus de verti.

On sait un faut systeme d'education lorsque on vent developer exclusivement tête on tête qualite de l'esprit;car sevouer aune soule pemlte, c'est pende un métier intellectuelle. Tout ce qui fait de change un home est le veritable object de l'ensignament.




3rd January 1813, Sunday

Mr W Bent dined at Linley Wood.


4th January 1813, Monday

Dr Darwin came to see poor sweet Mary. He came to dinner. She saw him in the parlour.


6th January 1813, Wednesday

My Uncle left us. Papa and Mr Bent to Macclesfield. Miss Grigletti went.


7th January 1813, Thursday

My Aunts,HEC and MEC to Macclesfield. Mary come down no more at present. We nurse her in the yellow room.


8th January 1813, Friday

Papa and Mr Bent returned. Mr Skerrett.


10th January 1813, Sunday

Aunt B, MEC and I went to Church, came home by the Congelton Road. Mr Dr Belcombe.



Inserts in diary. [different handwriting]


As the pills affect thegarvels of the cropoisal patient MS [willed?] advice their discontinuance for the present at least, and recommended in their staid a teacup full of strong chamomile tea with ginger and the addition of twenty or thirty grains of carbonated soda [treacal?] to be taken three times aday.

Newcastle, Monday 18th March. 


Oh wretched man look on that sable bier 

There all thy earthly hopes and comforts lie

Rapture for ever lost his faded there

Love cannot save the best beloved must die

Where shall thy wretched heart for comfort fly

This world contains no other destiny

There is not under heaven one gleam of joy

By which thy widowed heart can warmed be

Thou art alone on earth what is there left for thee

Go ask thy heart in this thy last despair

Can agony like mine belong to clay

Are all the [torting?] feelings that I share

Formed but of dust and shall they melt away

Soon as their mortal covering shall decay.


Oh what a weary [heavy] load is life

['how drear, how sad a' crossed out]

Without a Got to hear the wretched's prayer

A hopeless destiny, an endless strife

Gainst all the woes this feeble frame must share

In a hard world where none the suffering spare

['alone we tread with feelings all awake' crossed out]

Alive to every pain, alone we tread 

And transported all the burden

['dependent on ourselves to bear' crossed out]

By no kind hand supported raised or staid

['Bear' crossed out] are to the torturing wind our undefended head.

Hast thou a kindred heart on it depend

For comfort, for support, for company

Art thou so blest as to possess a friend

Ah what a fleeting blessing this may be

Thou [wiggst ?] survive and him expiring see

Where is thy comfort art thou not alone

What does the world possess to solace thee

What blessing can it give that shall atone

For this once lost and ease thy heart felt moan

Go visit nature in her secret cell

[poem continues. Much crossed out]


Theor. Man a compound animal composed of Mater on body and Soul or immaterial in.


Prob 1. ['All impressions' crossed out] all ideas received through impressions - all impressions material.

2nd. But ideas cease to be material.

3rd. there is ['therefore' crossed out] something immaterial which receives ideas: or ideas work.

4th. Attention converts impressions into ideas.

5th. Attention not material.

6th. Ideas created therefore by a material and immaterial cause.

7th. Attention acted upon by internal and external causes.

8th.By external when commanded externally as in violent pain and noise.

9th. By instinct when commanded internally as in feelings, listening &c.

10th. Attention therefore hath two causes.

11th. But one cause is from within.

12th. There is therefore an internal cause.

13th. The cause "The Will."

14th. But the will is not an idea.

15th. Therefore it is not created by matter.

16th. It is therefore original and immaterial, it is the Soul.


Nature of Man.

2 Differences of Men.

First two original differences.

1st. In the sensibility that receives impressions.

2nd. In the power of will that commands attention.


5 Nature of the Will.

1st. It is a sentiment.

2nd. It is alone in the power of Man.

3rd. Therefore responsible.

4th.Thus impressions received on the senses without the attention is directed to them. Do not create ideas, an idea therefore results from the unison of two, the material impression and immaterial attention. The idea thus created lies in the memory and forms a thing on which the attention may afterwards act without the intervention of matter.


3rd. On how world ideas aggregate. They never could make the individual, the would still remain a bundle of ideas for the consciousness is so far from being an idea that we can neither give nor even form any idea of it. We feel it and that is all we know. Now ideas never could produce what was no idea. Internal consciousness is no idea but what collects and attracts or aggregates ideas.


Nature of Man continued.


This body receives impressions which when [spontachr?] into ideas become additions to the soul.

2nd ideas create or call forth sentiments.

3rd. Sentiments become part of the spirit character or man.

4th. Thus the perfect man is produced by the ideas, sentiments created between soul and body.

5th. He is responsible because in the soul or will free [ertre? Creature?] power is given him.

6th. He is dependent and utterly powerless because he can command no one impression.

7th. He therefore owes all to God.

8th. And yet is he accountable to God.


4th Death

The body, the material machine here used as a medium to convey impressions to the soul and thus to create the man returns to the original atoms of which it is made.

2nd. The sentiments ideas, character which hath been created remains eternal.

3rd. Thus the Soul of man a [simple, temple?] thg

The body of man a simple thg

Man the character created by their union.

4th. The character influenced by both.

5th. At the moment of death its union with the body dissolved.

6th. Exists without the body.

7th. In sleeps in serene &c.

9th. Therefore the body not necessary to its continuance, only to its creation.


5th Virtue

The action of the will to right.

2nd Notion of right a Sentiment.

3rd. Sentiments not ideas.

4th. Original sentiments.

5th. Sentiments are [achieved?] not created.


5.5 That is created which is a new existence from 2;. Thus ideas never existed till the impression and attention when produced them, that is awakened which existed but had not acted. A sentiment as that of truth, we perceive truth, without having an idea of it. We assert to a proposition, before we know the name of truth. Right is a sentiment we feel right as well as have the idea of it the ideas excite given influence the sentiments but do not command them.


14th January 1813, Thursday [page 180] file C052

Newcastle Assembly. We did not go.


15th January 1813, Friday

Enoch Wood dined and staid all night. My Aunts left us.


21st January 1813

Maria and Dr Thomas Bent called.


23rd January 1813

Mrs Lawton and Dr Belcombe called.


26th January 1813

[Mr Holland, Mrs Notland?] dined here.


27th January 1813

Mrs Wedgwood came to pay us a visit before she leaves the country to settle in Devonshire. 


28th January 1813

Sat up with her at night, an evening I never shall forget.


29th January 1813

HE [HE?] and I took her to Newcastle.


7th February 1813, Sunday

MR Wood and Enoch dined here. Mr Bent called.


9th February 1813, Tuesday

Mr Salmon of Wheelock called. We were all in Mary's room. LC, HEC sung and played to him.


10th February 1813, Wednesday

Went with HEC about 4 o'clock to a Ball at Bostock, very unwell indeed. Too ill to enjoy the evening. Danced with two Mr Yates [Gates?] Saw Lucien Currie and a heap of people I knew nothing about. Mr Brooks etc.


11th February 1813, Thursday

Walked in the morning with Lucie Currie and Miss James, sat with M. Crompton, heard Locia [faling?] In the evening danced with Mr S Percival and Mr Brooks with Miss Brordreth[?] the rest of the [gt?] evening tricks upon cards. Agreeable enough.


12th February 1813, Friday

Came away a pleasant walk before we went, with Dr J. 


13th February 1813, Saturday

Mr Wedgwood and Sally came. Dr Thompson dined here. Went up to Mary's room and sat some time with her.


14th February 1813, Sunday

The Wedgwoods went.


17th February 1813, Wednesday

My Aunt MEC, LC to Parkfield.


20th February 1813, Saturday

My Aunt returned. MEC, LC to Maer.


26th February 1813, Friday

MEC came from Maer, Mama fetched her. MEC and I have spent a quiet comfortable fortnight reading [Janius?] and nursing dear Mary who now comes down.


27th February 1813, Saturday

Mr Holland dined here. 


28th February 1813, Sunday

Mr Bent dined here.


1st March 1813, Monday

Mr Bayley dined here.


3rd March 1813, Wednesday

My Aunt took ME and myself to the Book sale. Met Miss Albis, a great argument upon subsantus a plusait. [Mocking, morning?] brought LC back.


5th March 1813, Friday

ME and I to Newcastle.


6th March 1813, Saturday

Set out with my Aunt and HEC to Liverpool. Left HEC at Mrs Nawsons, found Anne Lawrence and Miss Jane L at Eton.


7th March 1813, Sunday

Went to Chapel. Mr and Mrs Shepherd. The evening went read some of Mr Moirs papers.


8th March 1813, Monday

Drank tea at Miss Lawrences. Danced in [gt, yl?] evening.


9th March 1813, Tuesday

To Liverpool, called at Mrs Nawsons, at Mrs Wallaces. Mrs Larvies the Noughtons dined at the Brewery. MN came back to Eton with us.


10th March 1813, Wednesday

Miss Lawrence and their girls dined at Eton 2 Mr Woods [ht?] Dennison danced in the evening.


11th March 1813, Thursday

Dined at the Brewery, called at Mrs Booths, Mr Croppers, Mrs Rawsons. Drank tea at the Park Curries Wallaces &c.


12th March 1813, Friday

Walked to Waventree to the gardens.


13th March 1813, Saturday

HEC [or MEC?] came to Eton.


14th March 1813, Sunday

Called at Allerton, Miss Brordreth, James Pilkinton, spent the evening at Eton.


15th March 1813, Monday

Came home. My Aunts here. LC at Shrewsbury.


16th March 1813, Tuesday

JSC came.


21st March 1813

Mrs Jas Wedgwood, Fanny Allen came to tea.


22nd March 1813

My three Aunts and Mrs Jos Wedgwood went to Manchester.


23rd March 1813

They all returned.


25th March 1813

Mrs Jos Wedgwood went, Miss Allen and Miss Emma Allen came. My Aunts left us.


30th March 1813

The Allens left us. ME and I to Parkfield. LC there, she came home.


31st March 1813

Mr Griffin called, rode out with Miss Wedgwood to New inn [Swift?] JSC called. 


1st April 1813

Miss Allens came to Parkfield.


2nd April 1813

Rode with Miss Wedgwood, Mr Butt, Griffin and JSC to PF.


3rd April 1813

Mr Butt dined and went. Dr Belcombe called.


4th April 1813

JSC, MEC and I called at Swinnerton, dined at PF then home. Miss Noble at Linley Wood. 


5th April 1813, Monday

Mr Holland dined here.


6th April 1813, Tuesday

Miss Noble went. Papa to Shrewsbury.


9th April 1813, Friday

LC and MEC to Newcastle. Papa came home. Mr Butt and Mr Bailey dined here.


10th April 1813, Saturday

Took a walk to Rode Heath, conversation as we came back. Played at chess in the [wood?]. The gentlemen went after dinner.


11th April 1813, Sunday

Mrs Wilson, Mary Edward Enoch and Mr Wood dined here.


13th April 1813, Tuesday

Mrs Lawton, Dr Belcombe, John Bent and Mr B Penlington dined here.


14th April 1813, Wednesday

Jos Wedgwood came.


15th April 1813, Thursday

A walk in the wood with JW and LC. He went in the evening. 


19th April 1813, Monday [page 184]

JSC went.


20th April 1813

Miss Bent and Rowland called.


21st April 1813

My Aunt Eliza and I went to Mr Butts, met the Allens and Wedgwoods. [Cow?] with F.A. on a line of Italian poetry that suited me.


23rd April 1813

Mr and Mrs C Lawton called.


27th April 1813

Papa, Mama and Eliza called at the two Betleys. 


1st May 1813, Saturday

Mama, Papa, MEC called at Miss Moretons. Elizabeth[?] and Jos Wedgwood came to Linley Wood. 


2nd May 1813, Sunday

They went.


6th May 1813

I called at Etruria with my Aunt and Eliza. Staid, dined alone with the Allens and S.W.


12th May 1813

Rode with Mrs Jos Wedgwood to Parkfield and back to see Emma on her way to town.


13th May 1813

F and E Allen Charlotte ['Elizabeth' crossed out] and Jos returned home with me. Rode to Bradwell and then walked the rest.


14th May 1813[page 185]

Jos [Jas?] Wedgwood went.


16th May 1813

The Allens &c went and Eliza with them.


25th May 1813

I went and fetched Eliza from Etruria. Bade farewell to the Allens.


26th May 1813

LC and I went to Betley. Miss Mill, Miss F Tomkinson, Miss Bents, Mr Griffin. Played chess with [Pip?] and still could not sleep. Calm effect of the wood and water at two in the morning.


27th May 1813

Mrs Tollets [club, chat?] walked. Dined in the evening Mr G 


28th May 1813

Returned home. Miss Allen, Fanny and E.W. rode over and spent the day.


29th May 1813

My Aunt Bessy came.


30th May 1813

Mr Bent and Mr R Skerrett.


31st May 1813

My Aunt Bessy went.


2nd June 1813

Mr Ralph came.


3rd June 1813

John [Lawrence?] called. Jos Wedgwood dined and slept.


6th June 1813

Mr Griffin dined, walk to Prospect Hill. LC, G and I walk in the Stonecliff.


7th June 1813

The Wedgwood girls and the Darwins came, walk to Talk.


8th June 1813

Walk in the evening on Turnpike road.


9th June 1813

Walk to fields by [?] and Swallow more. 


10th June 1813 [page 186]

Mr Ralph left us.


11th June 1813

The Wedgwoods and Darwins left us.


12th June 1813

My Aunts and MEC returned late in the evening. 


14th June 1813

Mr Holland


18th June 1813

M. ME, LC and I with Mrs Lawton and Dr Belcombe to Moldcoss, barrons[?] cottages. Much conversation, a very pleasant day.


19th June 1813

My Aunt Anne came in the evening.


21st June 1813

My Aunt M and MC to Blackpool. ME, L and I dined at Etruria. The locals in Newcastle saw guard returned evening, met large party of officers.


22nd June 1813

John Blunt came. 


23rd June 1813

J.B. went. We dined at Lawton.


25th June 1813

Fitzherberts, Mr Cagney, Twenlon and Griffin, Mr Wedgwood, E and SW dined and staid all night. LC sang in the evening, most charmingly.


26th June 1813

Walk before breakfast. Music [?] Fitzherberts, Mr Griffin and E Wedgwood went.


27th June 1813

The Woods, Mrs Wilson, Eliza W dined here.


28th June 1813

Went with S.W. to the Review. Mrs Fitz dined at Etruria. Home at night.



1814 - Page 187 - 188 - 189

Si la plupart des homes corcompris se sont appuyes sur le systeme materialiste lorsqu'ils sont voula sacetre methodiquement et methe leurs actions en thione ast qu'ils croyent en sonmollent lame aux sensations si delivrer ainsi de la responsabilite de leur conduite

French transcription continues. 


Page 191 - pencil sketch of a bottle. 

On ne tient [peut?] plus soi comme a un etre pervelegue quand on en sait beaucoup sur la destine humaine on ne sirait plus de change circumstance comme dan chose sans exemple et l'etinctre de l'esprit sont a nous detacher descalents personnes.

Il y a toujours dans la degradation une douleur don't on ne se rende pas confite et qui pousant sans cepeen sient l'ennui, la houte, et la fatigue qu'elle cause sort revetnes des formes de l'impartanie et du dedaain par la vanite mais il est bien rare qu'on setablipe in pais dors cette mamieu&ldots;

French transcription continues. 


Page 193

Dans le monde on se sent oppripee par ses facultes et l'on souffe souvent d'etre sent de sa nature au milieu de tout d'etres qui vivent a si per de frais. Mais le latent creatures suffit de quelques instants du moirs a tous nos vieuz &c.

De Stael - de L'Allamange III d v.


In most cases our habits of inattention may be traced to a want of curiosity and therefore such habits are to be corrected not by endeavouring to force the attention in particular instances but by gradually learning to place the ideas which we wish to remember in an interesting point of view.

Stewarts elements.


In order to give a proper direction to our attention in the course of our studies it is useful before engaging in particular pursuits to acquire as familiar an acquaintance as possible with the great outlines of science, with the most important conclusions which have hitherto been formed in them with the most important desiderata which remain to be supplied. In the case too of those parts of knowledge which are not yet ripe for the formation of philosophical systems it may be of use to study the various hypothetical theories which have been proposed for connecting together and arranging the phenomena. By such general views alone we can prevent ourselves from being lost amid a labyrinth of particulars or can engage in a course of extensive and various reading with an enlightened and discriminating attention.

D. S. Elements vol 


Whereas in all other sciences the propositions which we attempt to establish express facts real or supposed in mathmatics the proposition we demonstrate only assert a connection between certain supposition and certain consequences. Our reasonings therefore in matter, are directed to an object essentially different from what we have in view in any other employment of our intellectual faculties, not to ascertain truths with respect to actual existences but to trace the logical [filiation?] of consequences which follow from an assumed hypotheses.

D.S. 2nd vol.


Induction according to D.S. is not merely collecting a number of facts, agreeing in certain particulars and thence inferring[?] a cause, but whenever an interesting change is preceded [proceeded?] by a combination of different circumstances it is of importance to vary our experiments in such a manner as to distinguish what is essential from what is accessory and when we have carried the decomposition as far as we can we are entitled to consider the simplest combination of indispensible circumstances as the physical cause of [yd] event. When by thus comparing a number of cases agreeing in some circumstances but differing in others an all attended with the same result a philosopher connects as a general law of nature [yd, general, great?] event with its physical [use, case?] he is said to proceed according to [yd, ?] method of induction. Thus if I see twenty families of children all distinguished for good humour and good spirits who have all indulgent parents I am not warranted in affirming that indulgence is the general cause of these things till by a careful analysis of every instance I find that indulgence is the only circumstance they all have in common.


Political Arithmetic. Political Economy. [page 196]

The first calculates from particular facts.

The last from general facts.

The first from custom

The last from nature.

The first calculates that slaves are better than freed men and reckons the work done by a slave in a day in St Domingo against the work done by a freedman on the same estate. The last argues from the nature of things that free men will work more for themselves than slaves for their master inasmuch the desire of bettering our condition is [yd, Gd.?] master of human conduct.


Page 196 - Philosophical transcriptions D. S. 2nd Vol.

French and English transcription from Tweddells Correspondence. 

August from Dr Johnsons letters toMrs Thrale. 

Page 200 - Pencil drawing of a person from behind sitting in a chair. 

Transcription continues underneath.


Page 203 - 204 - pencil sketch, basic pattern, rectangles and long octagons. 


Page 205

English transcription continues. 

From Mad de Motteville Oct 26th. Dec 7th. When we are in adversity we are generally restless and impatient and anxious, full of complaints and when we are above it and our circumstances are improved it is - transcription continues.

Page 207 - Belgay [Belzay?]


French transcription.

De Stael


English transcription 

Phillip 4th 


Page 209

Pencil sketch of LC 1814. Young girl busy seated holding something close that she is inspecting. Has a plate[?] on her knee.

LC = Catherine Louisa Caldwell ? 1794 - 1814 


Pencil sketch insert. Female figure lying in bed looking other way. Bonnet on head. Could be someone reclining on ground or on a sofa?


Page 211

Transcription Chpes 4th. 

English transcription 



Page 212

Religious transcription. 


Page 213

Philosophical transcription - Mrs Hutchinson.

Religious transcription - Luke 12th. 


Page 214


Pencil sketch. MEC 1814

MEC - Margarent Emma Caldwell - 1792 - 1830. Married Sir Henry Holland. 


Page 217 - diary continues


1st July 1813, Thursday

Went with Mama to Nantwich. Miss Crompton came there.


4th July 1813, Sunday

Chapel. Mrs Baron called. Returned in the evening.


6th July 1813, Tuesday

Mary Crompton, Miss Strutt [Shutt?] and Miss M Lawrence came. 


8th July 1813, Thursday

Miss Struth and Miss Lawrence went.


13th July 1813

We girls and Mary Crompton shopped in Newcastle and drank tea at Etruria. Walk in the evening and home.


14th July 1813

Mrs Wood, Edna, Eliza and Mary came.


15th July 1813

Mr Wood and Edward came.


17th July 1813

The Woods went. JSC came, they returned from Blackpool. 


19th July 1813

Went with Papa and Mr Sparrow, staid at PF.


21st July 1813

Came to Etruria. Met Mama &c there. Left LC. Walk in the garden and home.


23rd July 1813

Party at Burslem. 


26th July 1813, Monday

Mrs Lawton dined with us.


27th July 1813, Tuesday

Mrs Crompton, Caroline and Anne Lawrence came.


28th July 1813, Wednesday

Papa, Mama and Eliza dined at Betley Court.


29th July 1813, Thursday

John Blunt dined here. L.C. home.


31st July 1813, Saturday

L.C. to Etruria again. All the Cromptons but Mary went.


2nd August 1813, Monday

The Lawtons, Dr Belcombe and Miss Tomison Belcombe called. 


3rd August 1813, Tuesday

The first Race Day Ball. Spent the evening with the Lyttletons and Mrs Fitzherbert.


4th August 1813, Wednesday

At the course. Fitzherberts, Play and Ball. Mr Okeover.


5th August 1813, Thursday

Course. Mr Okeover.


6th August 1813, Friday

ME,HE dined at Lawton.


7th August 1813, Saturday

M Crompton went. Elizabeth and C Wedgwood.


9th August 1813, Monday

Papa and JSC to Stafford. ME and I walked to Etruria. Saw Mrs Glover in the Lording of the Forest and Citizen Mack. Gratified.


10th August 1813, Tuesday

Walked home. My Aunt and Eliza to PF.


11th August 1813, Wednesday

Mama, LC and I to Mr Butts, Wedgwoods, Mr Griffin and Mr Ralph Sneyd, saw pictures, went on the water.


13th August 1813, Friday

Mrs [Patrick Heathcote?] Mr Cope [Coke?] Mr W Bent, Dradn Mrs Northern dined here. Mc and HE home.


14th August 1813, Saturday

Mrs [Lawton?], Miss Belcombes, Dr B came to dinner. I dined with my dear Mary. 


16th August 1813, Monday

Met the Wedgwoods again at the Play to see Mrs Glover in "Alhambra". Sat by [Hersleigh?] much pleased with his little remarks. ME staid with M.


17th August 1813, Tuesday

Called with Mama and ME on the Kinnersleys at Clough Hall. 


18th August 1813, Wednesday

Papa, Mama, Eliza and my Aunt to Ashcombe. 


20th August 1813, Friday

They returned.


23rd August 1813, Monday

Mrs, Miss and Caroline Crompton came.


24th August 1813, Tuesday

Eliza and I went to Basford. Miss Wedgwood and Miss Morgan, Mr Butt and Mr Coreless, much conversation on the play, music &c.


25th August 1813, Wednesday

We went to Etruria after dinner. Looked at the [steam?] of time.


26th August 1813, Thursday

Called at Basford on Mrs Rawson. Attended the [sd?] meets of the Club. Miss Morgan spoke long and well, large party at tea. Came home.


27th August 1813, Friday

The Kinnersleys called.


30th August 1813, Monday

Jos Wedgwood came.


31st August 1813, Tuesday

Jos, LC and I long and pleasant walk in the wood. He went after dinner.


1st September 1813, Wednesday

Mr Butt came. Mr and Mrs Jones and Miss Borne. Music in the evening.


2nd September 1813, Thursday

They all left us.


3rd September 1813, Friday

Called with Eliza at Rode Hall about the Club. Saw MrsWilbrahams school.

Mary and MC to Mrs Parkingtons Play. Aunt Bessy came. Went to the play to seeMrs C Kemble in "The Robbers Shatigen [?]" Very much pleased. Met the Wedgwoods, SW and Jos W. Dr Belcombe, LC.


4th September 1813, Saturday

Emma, Mama and Papa dined at Mrs Hatells. ME staid to see the Play.


5th September 1813, Sunday

ME came home. John Blunt came. Music in the evening sat with my poor Mary in my arms all evening


6th September 1813, Monday

Dr Belcombe called. ['JB went' crossed out]. ME came home. Poor Mary ill and nursed her in my arms on the parlour sofa.


7th September 1813, Tuesday

J Blunt went. My poor Mary took to her bed.


8th September 1813, Wednesday

My Aunt Anne came. Dr Darwin in the evening sat up with Mary.


9th September 1813, Thursday

Mama sat up with her. She died in the course of the next day at about 7o'clock, having taken her tend farewell of us all early in the morning.


11th September 1813, Friday

Mr Holland came.


12th September 1813, Saturday

JSC came home.


16th September 1813, Wednesday

My Uncle came back. 


17th September 1813, Thursday



21st September 1813, Monday

My Aunt Anne and my Uncle left us.


22nd September 1813, Tuesday

Mr W Bent called.


24th September 1813, Thursday

Mrs Jos Wedgwood spent the day. Mrs Wood and the girls called.


25th September 1813, Friday

Mr Blunt called.


29th September 1813, Tuesday

Mrs W Bent spent the day. My Aunt Anne came to fetch my Aunt B back.


30th September 1813, Wednesday

SW dined and staid all night.



Extract. 1815, Dec 22nd.[page 221]

Lady M Wortley Montague

You complimented me on the continuation of my spirits, tis time I tried to maintain them by every art I can, being sensible of the terrible consequences of losing them, young people are too apt to let them sink on any disappointment.

One of the greatest happinesses of youth is the &ldots;


Continues page 222, 223, 224, 226, 227.


[separate page in diary]

Books to read.

LesDialogues de Sylla and de Lysinagne par Mortispierre[?]. 

Manon Lescant par Prevot

Ou il a ee si vier qu'il a sa se paper de l'eloquence pour pevidre les mouvemens du Coeur il lui a saft de les raconteur. De la Lith de Balzac.

Voyage de L'etatie par Daclos.





[pencil doodles.] 


Next page - pencil sketch of three books. 


1st October 1813, [page 228]


2nd October 1813

C Wedgwood, Mr Wedgwood and the Bents called.


3rd October 1813

Papa and Mr W Bent from Liverpool.


5th October 1813

John Blunt and Mr Griffin called.


7th October 1813

Papa and Mama to Nantwich.


8th October 1813

They returned.


12th October 1813

Papa and Mama to Stoney Field.


13th October 1813

JSC to Mr Butts and Darfold. Dr Belcombe called. Walk on the terrace.


14th October 1813

Papa and Mama came back.


17th October 1813

Papa and Stamford dined at Rode Hall.


18th October 1813

Papa, Mama and Eliza called at Burslem.


19th October 1813

Papa to Shrewsbury. Anne and Eliza and I to Basford.


20th October 1813

Emma and Mama called and took us to Etruria.


21st October 1813

Morning looking at prints. Mr Butt and the Bents dined with us, tea table in the evening home.


30th October 1813, Saturday

My Uncle and General Skerrett came. Dinner and cons [conversation?] at tea.


31st October 1813, Sunday

Walked about all morning. Evening music. LC and I over [Gainn, Guinn?].


1st November 1813, Monday 

Dr Holland came. Walk on the gravel. Walk in the morning. Evening conversation, sofa.


2nd November 1813, Tuesday

My Uncle went. Had day walk about the house, read Spanish. Evening music. Dr Holland, JSC to Parkfield.


3rd November 1813, Wednesday

A walk to Talk &c. JSC returned. Evening newspapers. 


4th November 1813, Thursday

General Skerrett left us. Walk by Lawton. Dr Holland came again.


5th November 1813, Friday

Geological conversation.


6th November 1813, Saturday

Dr Holland went early in the morning. JSC returned to town. Mama, HE and I to Etruria.


9th November 1813, Monday

Mr and Mrs Lawton, Dr Belcombe dined here.


10th November 1813, Tuesday

Dr Belcombe went.


11th November 1813, Wednesday

Eliza and Maria Bent, Eliza staid.


12th November 1813, Thursday

E. Bent went. Papa, Mama, Eliza and Emma to Parkfield.


13th November 1813, Friday

They came back.


18th November 1813, Thursday

My Aunts came.


20th November 1813, Saturday

A.B., Mama, ME and I called at Lawton. Dr Belcombe and Mr Griffin. Lively conversation.


22nd November 1813, Monday

Papa, ME, LC and I dined at Lawton. The Arkers and Mr Surpareoness.


23rd November 1813, Tuesday

MrsWilbraham called.


24th November 1813, Wednesday

My Aunt A.B. and I went to Newcastle.


27th November 1813, Saturday

Mama, my Aunt and Eliza called at Betley.


9th December 1813, Thursday. 

Eliza, ME and I to Betley Hall. The Stanhopes.


10th December 1813, Friday

Came home. My Aunts went.


12th December 1813, Sunday

Eliza Bent came.


13th December 1813, Monday

Eliza Bent and Eliza Caldwell went to Liverpool. My Aunt, LC and I to Parkfield.


15th December 1813, Wednesday

We returned.


16th December 1813, Thursday

Mr and Mrs Sneyd, Colonel Dobson, Mr Butt came. Mrs Lawton dined here.


17th December 1813, Friday

Miss Morton came.


18th December 1813, Saturday

They all left us.


20th December 1813, Monday

My Aunt and I to Birmingham. 


Page 232


Elizabeth Hancock[?] Talk Pits. Aged 21 Pd Int Money 1/-

Ellen Cooper - ditto. Aged 28  -  August 25 2/-

Hannah Hay  - ditto. Aged 37 - August 26 3/-

Anne Wakefield / Hollins  - Aged 29. 3/-

Elizabeth Adget, Talk Pits - Adged 24. 1/6 

Sarah Gleers [?] Paid back. Age 45. 1/6

Sarah Salmon - Red Street. Aged 44. 3/6

Mary Proctor - Red Street. Aged 28. 2/-

Sarah Clarke - Red Street. Aged 287. 1/-


5th January 1814, Wednesday [page 233]

We returned to Linley.


6th January 1814, Thursday

Mrs Tollet, Mrs Stanhope, Miss Stanhopes, P.J., the Lawtons and Dr Belcombe at Linley Wood.


7th January 1814, Friday

The Tollets &c went.


8th January 1814, Saturday

Mama, Papa, ME and LC to Etruria.


9th January 1814, Sunday

They returned.


10th January 1814, Monday

Eliza and EB from Liverpool.


11th January 1814, Tuesday

M. Bent fetched Eliza home.


17th January 1814

Went with my Aunt Eliza and Emma to Parkfield.


18th January 1814

Eliza, Miss W and Charlotte to Exeter. Emma and I went with Mrs Wedgwood to call at Swinnerton and then to Etruria.


21st January 1814

E Bent called at Etruria.


24th January 1814

ME and I went with Papa and Mama to Swinnerton. The Edward Blunts, [M Y?] Skirby[?] and Graham. Organ playing. Met LC in Newcastle as we went, she on to Etruria.


25th January 1814

We came back, my Aunt and LC from Etruria, a deep snow all over the Kingdom. 8 mails due.


29th January 1814

My Aunt, LC to Nantwich, a deep snow that filled me with terror for that beloved child.


5th February 1814, Saturday

Mr Griffin called and stayed dinner. Papa read the Giaona[?]


10th February 1814

ME and I went with Mrs Lawton to Newcastle.


12th February 1814

I dined with Papa, Mama and ME at Lawton Hall.


15th February 1814

I went with Mama and ME to Newcastle. Mr Griffin and Dr Belcombe. We called at Miss Byerleys.


17th February 1814

LC and my Aunt came home.


22nd February 1814

LC and I went to Basford. E and M Balsac there.


24th February 1814

Walked to Newcastle. Mr Griffin.


26th February 1814

Came back from Basford. Called at Mr Leighs.


27th February 1814

With ME to Mary Morton's funeral.


28th February 1814

Went to Parkfield.


2nd March 1814, Wednesday

SW and I to the Book sale. Met the girls. 


12th March 1814

Came back from Parkfield. Met my LC in Newcastle. ME at Etruria. 


16th March 1814

Papa, Mama, my Aunt and JSC to Etruria. LC and I spent the day in copying out my little play.


17th March 1814

They came home.


22nd March 1814, Tuesday

Mr Heygarth came.


23rd March 1814, Wednesday

We walked to Swallowmore. Music morning[?] and evening. 


24th March 1814 [page 235], Thursday

Walked in the wood. Music again.


25th March 1814, Friday

Mr Heygarth went. The messenger from Nantwich bringing the news of General S's death.


26th March 1814, Saturday

Papa and Mama went to Nantwich.


28th March 1814, Monday

They returned.


30th March 1814, Wednesday

ME and I went to Parkfield to fetch Eliza from Exeter.


31st March 1814, Thursday

My Uncle came.


2nd April 1814, Saturday

Mr Lawton called.


9th April 1814

Mrs Jos. Wedgwood came.


10th April 1814

Mama and I took Mrs Wedgwood back in the carriage and returned. 


12th April 1814

Dr Belcombe called and stayed dinner. My time much spent reading Maller on the Gross while Eliza rode Mr [Parke?] in the evening.


13th April 1814

My Uncle and my Aunts came. Walk with Mr P [Cope?] Swallowmore. 


15th April 1814

Mr Peake came again. 


16th April 1814

Went to Newcastle with my two Aunts.


17th April 1814

Mr Peake went after dinner.


20th April 1814

Party to Burslem.


22nd April 1814

My Aunts and Uncle went.


23rd April 1814

Mr Tollet, Mr Wicksted and Mr Butt called. 


25th April 1814

Called at Basford on the poor Bents who have lost their brother Major Bent. At Etruria.


3rd May 1814, Tuesday

Lady Fletcher and Miss Fletchers called and Mr Griffin and stayed dinner. We drew in Swallowmore. The most enchanting and blissful May perhaps of my life. These two bright spring days passed in the enjoyment of health [parcel?] and lovely spring with a sweet and adored child and sister I now and shall forever look back upon as the best [leans?] of my [setting?] family happiness the worst has been to me a blank since - and though I have known pleasure I have never tasted satisfaction. What it is to love perfectly and to love in the full spring time of affection few happily know.


8th May 1814

Eliza and I went to [Coole?]


17th May 1814

I came home with A.B. Papa ill in Gt yellow room. I have spent a merry and pleasant time laughing and talking nonsense over the whist table.


18th May 1814

Mrs Holland and little girls MN and Mrs Turner came.


19th May 1814

Went to the fashions, met my two dear little girls, nor shall I ever forget the glamorous beauty of my own as Dr B placed her on the [Baroncke?] Box.


20th May 1814

Eliza came home.


21st May 1814

My Aunt Bessy returned.


25th May 1814, Wednesday

The Hollands went.


26th May 1814, Thursday

Mrs Rawson and Eliza Bent came.


27th May 1814, Friday

Mary Holland and C Wedgwood called. [page 237]


28th May 1814, Saturday

Went to Etruria, rode with Mrs Rawson to Basford. At Etruria met the Hollands &c.


30th May 1814, Monday

I came home.


31st May 1814, Tuesday

Mrs W Bent and her children came. Dr Belcombe dined here.


2nd June 1814, Thursday

Eliza and M Holland came. Charlotte W and M Bent, the Fox's nest taken. M. Bent went home in the evening.


4th June 1814, Saturday

Charlotte and M. Holland went.


5th June 1814, Sunday

Mr Bent and Nowland came to dinner. Led my L on the poney to Church, the children rode after. A walk in Swallowmore. The Bents went.


7th June 1814, Tuesday

Party to call at Betley. Mr Trubshaw came. Alterations begin in the house.


9th June 1814, Thursday

My Aunt L.C., and MEC dined at Etruria.


15th June 1814, Wednesday

Lady Fletcher and Lady Boughey called. Drew in Swallowmore. 


16th June 1814, Thursday

Mrs and Miss Furnival called. Emma to Parkfield. Henry Crompton came.


17th June 1814, Friday

MEC home.


18th June 1814, Saturday

Mr Griffin called, talked over the propited journey after dinner talk about learning to sing.


19th June 1814, Sunday

Walk to [Selk?] with H. Crompton.


20th June 1814, Monday

My Aunt and we four girls set out upon our Welsh journey to Newcastle, 6 miles. To Eccleshall, Swother Inn, the country dull and disagreeable near Eccleshall, the Bishops Palace, Newport, [Wathy ?] Street. Here fine views of the hills[?] on the borders of Shropshire. To Shrewsbury pass the Wrekin which at a distance seems a fine mountain, near only a green hill, and so perhaps it is with all things in this life and the Wrekin may serve for an illustration of lives and of pleasures and of events such as death, marriage &c. which are but the same when approached as all else. Near Shrewsbury pass Lord Berwicks, the house appeared to me very beautiful in the Grecian style. I hear since it is very defective. There is a very pretty view of the grounds from a bridge over a little river of which I forget the name. The entrance into Shrewsbury this way is very beautiful, the castle stands high with many trees about it and fine oaks breaking from it. There is likewise an interesting old Church, the Abbey Church I believe passed as you enter the town. Stopped at the inn where Dr Darwin joined us to see and give advice to my dearest. He took the girls home with him. I remained with my Aunt, so dead with fatigue that I could hardly move. About 9 joined at Dr Darwin's, a beautiful view from his upper windows of the Severn winding through a fine plain interspersed with buildings and trees and the Castle hanging over it. Like a fine Italian picture. LC and the girls walked with me in the beautiful garden, fine hedge of rose de Meanx in flower. Went home to the inn.


21st June 1814, Tuesday

Walked about Shrewbury. Many curious old buildings. Amused with seeing an Irish family set out in all the disorder and inconsistency so often described. To Welshpool, the road over a fine country, the Bigdden and Malverley [Melvegoloyn?] Hills make a very fine feature all the way. After passing  them enter a fine valley terminated by the hills beyond Welshpool and the Montgomeryshire hills. Looking back upon the Brydden [Bigdden?] his large black [poll?] looks very magnificent and [sarly?]. I shall remember always with pain and pleasure this lovely [ride?] looking back too as I did upon my two sweet girls with enchanted faces following. Welshpool stands at the end of this valley surrounded by high ground, Powys Castle high over it. Went to the Church yard from whence is a magnificent view. The Town full of Officers and  [page 240] and sundry fine ladies in most becoming morning [conairing?] us that coquetry and the love of dress cannot be banished by the magnificence of nature. After dinner went up to Powys Castle. It is very ancient, the court first entered surrounded by old walls, huge ivy and decaying shrubs, the entrance an arch by which leads directly through the castle and terminates in a small stone terrace with steps leading to the gardens which hang below and commanding a glorious view all up the valley above described. The Brydden &c. This terrace resembles more a pier jutting into the sea than anything else. The Castle is old really, the gardens upon a steep [deparity?] ending in a green valley from which runs a steep bank and wood on the other side. As we [settled, rattled?] up and down the steps looked over the edges of the terraces and tasted the fine air on them I could not help envying the fair and young who looked upon their knights riding in the meadows below, and longing for the age of chivalry but I suppose it would be like the [brekin?] and that the neglect, the weariness and the mortifications which embitter the life of the young now in different forms preyed then. A cast of the [Lucian? Leocoon?] on which I looked with wonder and horror never was pain more acute exhibited. I particularly admire the writhe of the body from the bite of the serpent on one side but there is not moral feeling enough expressed and mere bodily suffering excites no pleasure in the representation, however wonderful and [grown?] man struggling with the storms of fate is the sublimest spectacle next to that of a weak and tender mind and body unsubdued to [impatience?] but the Loecoon only suffers the dreadful agonies which arise from the struggles of a strong gigantic body with bodily torture and anguish. One feels it the excess of agony, but it tells no more. His body is individual, not his mind.

To Newtown, the Montgomery shire hills surrounding the valley of the Severn the principal feature. A most odd creature was our driver, two things struck me, the interest, indignation and regret with which he related various caricatures of the Powys family, and his telling me that the peasants in this neighbourhood were in the habit of saving money and then laid it all out in digging for treasures in the ruined castles about. Something here touched my fancy much being so much more approaching the expectations of old rumours than the [acconory?] and wisdom of agricultural England. He invectorised Cromwell too for destroying the Castles in a very different way I thought from what an English driver would do.


22nd June 1814 , Wednesday [page 242]   

To Llonidloes through a most beautiful valley of the Severn. Fine woods and hills hanging over it. Stopped to draw a very picturesque wood bridge over the river. The descent to Llanidloes very beautiful. Walked to see an old Church with a curious roof, all the children crowding round about us and the old Clerk stopping a walking over the aisle after them to drive them out. Went and sat on the outside the town to draw the bridge which is a wooden stretching across the pebbly river now sparkling in the sun. A crowd of [rosy, nosy?] women with an air en l'air, erect, courteous, unbent by labour, unroughened by sordid poverty came round us. Pleased to talk exalting in their fine air and their fine views, and gratified with our admiration, as if they fully shared the taste for these things. The first who addressed me anxious to point out a better place to sketch from and all carefully keeps the children from [crowding?] us. They wear round mens hats over their white caps, a very becoming costume.

To the Devils bridge, the road wild but not of a sort that pleases me for the valleys are not very narrow nor the hills very abrupt. The prettiest feature is the Wye winding like a silver thread through the green bays. At Ispyty there is a bring and fall to be seen. Got out and stopped at house for a guide. Found it so dark inside that I was very near being [ahile?] deep in a slough in the middle of it, while groping my way. But the people who came out of these hovels, as in Scotland, are nothing less like than the squalid, sickly, pale, bendy, turn outs of an English hut. The women guided us to the bridge which is at the bottom of a chasm of which the sides are so precipitous that the little [bridges?] froth down them seem like a path on the side of a well. MEC and LC without hesitation went down after the guide, fearless, taking it as a matter of course. I [proved?] till I trembled, crept down, looked at the foaming and streaming water till I found despair of a return creeping on me. Then desperately scrambled back and when I got to the top laid down in a ditch and cried of mere terror. When we got to the Devil's Bridge we found the road mending alighted and the carriages and horses scrambled over heaps of rough stones things, mud, sand and ruts that seemed quite impassable with a desperation and success that astonished me and I began to think that carriages made strong might visit many a place where we accustomed to smooth roads dare not take them. The Devil Bridge is a deep chasm torn between the mountains [monstrous?] bend corresponding to bend covered entirely with young oaks with a threading silver stream falling through them. There is no face of rock, no grouping of trees, seen through a diminishing glass, the sides would seem cloathed with what we call tree moss, all the girls were much pleased but I wanted variety or rather, features for there are none here. After dinner we walked to see the waterfalls, the water at present very low and the effect poor compared to what I have seen in Scotland. What I liked best is the bridge over a chasm half filled with hanging wild shrubs and the water foaming below. On account of accommodations we were obliged to go on to Aberystwyth this evening. Soon after leaving the Devils Bridge the road is entirely through the mountains, traversing their very tops and overhanging us without any guard the steep green sides that plunge into deep [valleys?] now and then interspersed with wood and streams roaming through them. The chasm of which the Devils bridge is part may be seen [heverly?] the country for some distance. The view all round one track of valley and mountain, and the road though really not dangerous had such an effect upon me at first that on getting out of the carriage at the top of a mountain I felt so sick and dizzy that I hardly dare stand. There is something however, in these wide mountain solitudes particularly gratifying to my feelings, nor is there perhaps any situation where one feels the force of life within one more exhilarating than inhaling the pure breeze and sketching [forwards, journals?] in a cool evening over these exalted paths.


Page 246


When we reached Aberystwyth the sun was setting. It lies at the mouth of two rivers, the Rheidol and Ystwyth which are seen winding down the valley to the sea. The high castle terminating the land, the sun behind the sea, the deep valleys and wild dark mountains made this striking view. A steep descent brought us into the town. We stopt at the inn and were assured with the ostler whipping the curious children scamping from the carriage.


23rd June 1814, Thursday

We walked down to the shore. Aberystwyth lies in a bay, the North terminates by a bold and dark projection of rock, the castle on a green eminence ends it on the South though properly the bay stretches wide into Carmarthenshire. The shore pebbly and uneasy, therefore the sea fresh sparkling, all in motion as it is everywhere. Met the Tollets and walked on the shore with them. Took apartments in the Castle House. Returned to the inn to dine. Head bind, and got a few books to divert the unsupportable ennui of a first arrival at a watering place. Went to our lodgings.


24th June 1814, Friday [ page 247]

Went to town. In the evening took a walk to the North with the Tollet children, daubed the paint, found a small bay circled with immense thick rocks, fearful of being overtaken by the tide scrambled over slippery rocks and splashing of water came where the cliff declines and got by a path to the top of it. I know no situation of common life that makes one feel so desperate as walking against the tide. This little narrow path leads over the side of the sloping hills that break into the cliffs and shore. Here again I was almost overpowered with terror. The path is too narrow for more than one to walk and I could not help fancying that one false step would send one rolling down the steep over the cliff below. I think my health must have been very weak to make me so tremorous for all the rest tripped on unconscious of danger. I returned half dead.


26th June 1814, Sunday

Went to a Baptist Chapel, quite full of people, many standing in the aisle. All with serious attention, but at times the sitters gravely rising to take turn with the standers and at others some quietly walking out to look after the dogs or children about the doors which were open the whole time. Three men were in the pulpit. The first prayed in Welsh. The second preached in a mixed language but chiefly English. All this went off quietly, then the third, a man in a blue coat looking like a butcher rose up and began in a load harsh voice to preach entirely in Welsh. As his tones grew louder the people became more moved till tears were shed and groans and sighs in every corner of the Chapel. One woman struck me much by the apparent bitterness of her sorrow. The countenances of many of the men pleased me much. The round fixed way jolly welsh men I am apt to believe is not the real native head. I saw here some of those long grave calm [foils?] nose approaching to the [gresiron?] that for some cause or other one always sees put for the old british kings. [drawing of profiles in diary]. Went to Church, like other churches.


28th June 1814, Tuesday

We sat upon the beach for some time in the morning, then went to the News room and then to the Pendragons [?] hill which lies on the south of the town. MEC found several plants. Rose spinosofina in great abundance.


29th June 1814, Wednesday [page 249]

In the evening drank tea with Dr Cluttens to hear the band of the Cardiganshire Militia. Fine sun set. This is the first time I have seen the Western sea, the sunset disappointed me, being at least when I have seen it far less beautiful than over our extended land prospect at home, unattended by those thousand coloured clouds, it drops a huge red ball into the colourless ocean. Only just tinting the tops of the waves.


30th June 1814, Thursday

Drinking tea at Mrs Tollets. Heard a blind woman play on the Welsh harp for the first time. I thought the sound harsh and unmusical.


1st July 1814, Friday

We all went to Borth to pick shells. It lies at the mouth of the Dovey. The ride over a wild country not particularly beautiful, but the hedges quite full of deep red roses and wood bine are now very pretty. The shore at Borth flat as the deserts, a vast track of sand over which we drove with the sea at a little distance, looking as if it were fully on us. Leaving Borth inn we walked towards the mouth of the river. On the other side lies Aberdovey, at the foot of a range of high hills that run in a bold prominence into the sea. The sun being very hot, the whole valley of the Dovey seemed to us a lake with houses, hills &c reflected into it. This must be the mirage I suppose, it was sometime before we could be undeceived. I was very much tired with this walk. We found some pretty shells but in no great abundance. Girls playing in the hay at night.


2nd July 1814, Saturday [page 250]

Went into the country to call on the three old ladies, the most curious specimen of human nature I ever saw. They have built a moderate sized stone house which they shew with all the pride of a palace. Totally inconspicuous that there can no interest or beauty, in square light rooms their only, and in their eyes, quite sufficient accommodation. We found them living in an old hut of which their sitting room appears to me now as if it were made of heath, it was very dark. One was dressed in an old spotted gown in the fashion of 30 years ago with a huge rough pill brown Brower[?] bonnet on her head. The younger in a striped muslin of the same [state] where yellowness looked as if it had never been washed since made, a piece of white and pink checked muslin round her head, over this an old green silk bonnet and an old black veil, a faded pink ribbon round her waist fastened with an old fashioned stone buckle. They shewed their house with pride, talked of their marriage and their children with confidence and the youngest, about 50 after much pressing and affected refusals sang, or rather screeched the Highlord ladder. I could hardly contain my surprise, could hardly give my belief to what I saw before me. The whole scene a scene in a dream which inspired me with disgust rather than laughter and I turned from this monstrous open stage of selfishness, pride and inconceivable ignorance as I would from the greatest natural deformity. I fancy that this is the real Old Maid of uncivilized times and therefore cannot wonder at the ridicule thrown on the character. The present Old Maid will where women are intellectual at all, be more so than the wife and probably will be singular by being above, not below the standard, but where women live only to the [surrounding?] scene to have no husband to exercise their minds and tempers, no children to occupy their attention and affections perhaps it is natural they should turn out the selfish and hideous characters above met with. This may morning walked with my L to explore the rocks on the North. Found some little veins of metal and an old case with great pleasure.


3rd July 1814, Sunday [page 252]

Went to Church and walked about the castle of which very little remains but the banks being covered with green sword and neat walks made is a very pleasant stroll, the sea high and strong dashing under our feet.


4th July 1814, Monday 

We left Aberystwyth to pursue our tour in North Wales. To Machynlleth. Of this stage I remember very little except a very fine view of the Dovey, but I think it is in general pretty. Machynlleth lies low. Through terrible rain we set out for Dolyelle [Dolgellau?] The first part well wooded. When we came to the region of Cadair Idris it became very strking, the road lies through a defile, the mountains rising black and frowning on each side. Every now and then heaps of stones had rolled down and covered the road and the clouds rolling over the tops of the mountains and the darkness of continued rain added to the effect. We met several people coming from the fair or market at Dolyelle who never passed our drivers without a cordial salute. We crossed the range of Cadair Idris. Dolgelle lies in the valley below a range of hills covered with wood rises on the other side. A river flows at their foot, the situation is fine and the iron line of Cadair Idris has a very striking effect.


5th July 1814, Tuesday [page 253]   

Set out for Barmouth. Walked to the bridge of the Avonvanr, the town looks remarkably pretty here lying stretched at the foot of the Black mountains, interspersed with trees. The whole ride to Barmouth [needs, machs?] description for some time wind through lovely vallies hung with trees and wild cottages with streams breaking from the rocks. The river widens into a magnificent estuary. Five wooded mountains bound the opposite side while on this large woods break in bold promontories into the water crossing each other, hiding sometimes all, at others forming lakes, rivers every possible variety that rock, mountain, wood and water on a very grand scale can produce. The road is often embowered with trees. As you approach Barmouth the mountains break into bold points and needles that seem to plunge into the water. The road winds round these at a tremendous height above the sea. They were now covered with heath, gorse, geraniums and the gaudiest wild flowers in full bloom. Making a sudden turn you come upon Barmouth which is built house above house on the side of a steep mountain close to the mouth of the river. The mountains sink beyond Barmouth and finish in a low promontory. After dinner LC and I went to draw and then climbed up the mountain at the back of the town till we got a view of the valley back to Dolgelle and walked on the shore before dinner.


6th July 1814, Wednesday [page 254]

We again clambered up the mountain, it is curious how point rises above point in these attempts but there is very great pleasure in [scaling?] up these heights. It rained and we came down speedily. The view from the top is very grand. A blind harper played to us at meals, it is but a poor instrument, the Welsh harp, but a very picturesque object and this man has a fine expression.


7th July 1814, Thursday

Rainy morning confined us to the house. Nothing is so ennuyant as these confinements in inns. One is too idle to do anything. Here I may however remark that ennui means nothing more or less than the natural punishment of indolence and if people would consider this they would not so often complain with no shame of being ennuage. Those who will be busy never are. Now how happy we ought to be who may in great measure choose our own employments if we would choose them instead of being forced to work at what is disagreeable like the poor but we throw this advantage away and choose to be listless, [hanging?], and good-for-nothing instead of improving, active and useful. I got one speech of [Pladhe?] however this morning. After dinner we set out for Dolgelle, the rain clearing a little away. The beauty of the rise was, if possible, improved by the streaming brooks that run across the road. One insignificant little stream at the bottom of a cleft was become a glorious dashing waterfall foaming along the whole length of it. We found Dolgelle illuminated for the peace. We walked a short way up the Bala road which lies through very pretty woods.


8th July 1814, Friday [page 256]

The weather clearing Emma, Eliza and I determined to go to the top of Cadair Idris. We were each mounted on poneys, a guide walked. After gong two miles up the road and then turning up a lane we began to ascend the mountain up what could hardly be called a path, covered with large stones rolled down by the torrents. I was quite surprised to see the activity with which the poneys clambered up led by Emma who rode Royal Bobby, a little fellow who has gone these expeditions twenty years and who examines the best path and chooses it with an appearance of great good sense. We were directed to lag our bridles on the horses necks and let them follow their own paths. At one place near the top we were obliged to get off and let the poneys [semmble?] themselves. At the top of the first chain we came to the Bogs which we passed, still following our little leader who chose his way with perfect skill through these deceitful greens. Every now and then we saw spots of a beautiful emerald colour where the beautiful moss covers depths [unscoutable?] of bog and where any one setting their feet sinks and perishes forever. We came next to the source of the Towyn river. The spring gushes clear as chrystal from the earth and at this spot you trace it to the sea whose waters rising as you rise had their line now above the clouds which lay like white feathers against the blue waves. Close by this stream is a large emerald bog. The horses were turned loose and we walked the rest of the way. We went up the steep green bank for some time till we came to the top which is in this shape [drawing of top] that narrow bridge looks down on the left to a small lake over a tremendous precipice, the shape is just like that of a crater to a volcano. I do not know whether volcanic remains are found here, it is tremendous work to mount the little ridge. The top of all is small and here are stones arranged in an oblong, the giants cradle which I think is English for Cadair Idris but I am not sure whether Idris means giant or whether it is the giants name. Here a fine expanse, a sea of huge wavy mountains burst upon us. All Wales lay before us in ridge and valley broken in all forms, lines and lines. Part deep in the shade of the clouds, part bright in the sunshine. Sometimes a cloud gathered round us like a cartoon and shut all out, then gradually cleared off and we saw again the hilly landscape through the dross shining in the sun. It is a very beautiful sight. There is a marked difference in the features of the hills South and North of Dolgelle. North Wales is craggy and broken. South smooth and wavy. I believe we saw the Wrekin. Bala pool was like a small mere before us. I remember remarking nothing more. The guide rolled a large stone down the precipice into the water below and a fine smoking run it made as it broke thundering into ten thousand pieces. He then, as we came down, led us to a pool on the right side of the mountain [sketch in diary] over which rises a black point something like this shape. This seems to have been a crater too, it is very grand, the pool at the bottom seemed a little [pint, first, but?] I was surprised to learn its size that it was a considerable mere. About upon it was hardly discernible. We returned to our poneys, crossed the bogs on them and then walked down the stoney side of the mountain, the day was very hot and we were a good deal tired. A trifle I will mention, we found bread and cheese much pleasanter than bread and meat on such an expedition, it is more agreeable when one is hot and carried a great deal better. As we passed the jail the guide told us with great exaltation that there was no prisoner there now that there was no one tried at the last Assizes, that there had not been a man hanged there for twenty years except last year when two were hanged for robbery and one of those an Englishman and the other a South Wales man accidentally taken in the town. We got home at 5 o'clock and experienced all the agonies of real hunger as we waited for our dinners.


9th July 1814, Saturday [page 259]

We set off to Tany Bowloh. The first part of the ride after turning from the Barmouth round very beautiful, hanging over a valley through which a small river, the opposite banks covered with woods of most peculiar beauty, very like the woods on Italian prints or pictures. I think they are chiefly large Birch trees but certain it is they exceed in beauty any woods I ever saw before. Stopped to see a waterfall at Dalgnethyn, Mr Maddocks. Walked through the grounds, very pretty. There were roses and woodbine planted in the grass which I thought a very pretty effect. The waterfall is high, well shaded with trees and of extraordinary beauty. The river foams down the glen and make a succession of cataracts for a quarter of a mile afterwards. The ride afterwards was dreary. Passed Trowswynait [Trawsfynydd], I think it is spelt, a village of very old houses. Just as we turned down the hill which commands a good view of Tan-y-bwlch we met Mr Griffin. Dined and then went into Sir C Capleys grounds. Tan-y-Bwlch lies at the head of a valley with the sides hung with wood, it is very pretty. The grounds pleased us exceedingly, the trees in the woods are so very fine.


10th July 1814, Sunday [page 260] 

LC, I and Mr Griffin had a pleasant walk in the woods. Then we went to Listning and saw a waterfall and a stone called the pulpit and spent the evening at home. I have great pleasure in L's and my bedroom, the window which looks to the woods open all night and wakened by the leaves and [firmary? rills, fuming hills?] and the shrill martin song of birds on every bough.

Little thought I that so soon we were to part, she to heaven and I to go on in a difficult world and to plunge from trouble to trouble. Yet I hope not in vain and that I shall pacify this selfish heart at last live to others and my external duty, be religious and good destiny, selfishness that wicked principle and be at last after all my wanderings reunited to my dear girls where there shall be peace.


11th July 1814, Monday [page 261]

We set out on an expedition to Harlech. We went in a [pink, tick?] chaise with four horses. Saw a beautiful waterfall on the way. The ride in many places very picturesque. Cross a flat that must have been sea before reaching Harlech which is built on the side of a steep hill, we came to a wretched little inn where there was nothing to eat but eggs and bacon which almost poisoned us and then went into the Castle. It is of the usual form, tower and flat sides. I recollect very little of it at the time of writing this, the situation is very commanding. Rode great part of the way home in a very pleasant evening, got to the inn about 9 o'clock.


12th July 1814, Tuesday [page 262]

Set out for Biddgelert , by Tremadog. The ride very fine indeed. Snowden is very grand with his attending mountains. Tremadog is well worth seeing, were it merely as such a completely new made place, but it has many beauties. We walked upon the great embankment made to cut off an arm of the sea. The water was washing through in such a manner it had been made by merely throwing loose stones into the water which it was expected the mud and sand of the tide would cement, but this has not been the case, however it is a grand work. Poor L was here so arrack that she could not go out with us to walk. She was sick and had a bad head ache. Leaving Tremadog the road was under fine rocks of white stone over hung with shrubs and heath till you came to Pont Aberglaslyn which is the entrance to a magnificent and gloomy defile. The bridge, the trees all here are excessively beautiful. We were some time trying to sketch it and then walked up the defile to Biddgelert. This pass is the finest I have ever seen. Beddgelert is beautifully situated. We dined and after dinner walked to gelerts grave and shopped a little in the village.


13th July 1814, Wednesday [page 263]

It rained in the morning, in the evening we walked to Llyn Dinas. I remember that walk very well, particularly the fine effect of Snowden. It is very beautiful scenery indeed. It rained and we were obliged to shelter in a hovel. I rode back upon a horse we had brought with us. After tea we went a walk up the hill towards Cunirwon. What high spirits was I in skipping along the stones, but I think even now when tears consume part of each day, I am happier for my pleasures then were vain and selfish and I thought little of any ones pleasure but my own and certainly was not grounded by principle in my words or actions as I ought to have been, but God watches us.


14th July 1814, Thursday

We set off for Caernarvon [Caenarfon]. I have forgot great part of this ride. Mr Griffin walked it and came in long after us. Caernarvon is a considerable town, the castle is very long and the view from it beautiful. In the evening we spent 3 hours exploring it. How excessively silly was our pleasure this evening, let her look back and think what a selfish creature she shewed herself to have a fit of the spleen for what happened there and at such a time too. The setting sun, the view towards Anglesea from the top of the Eagle Tower was extremely beautiful.


15th July 1814, Friday [page 264]

Mr [Rigman?] breakfasted with us and rode with us to Llanberis and these lakes are eight miles from Caernarvon. They are surrounded with black mountains and are very fine. An old woman first took us in the boat. We called at a slate quarry for her son, a fine beautiful lad about 18. He rowed us to the end of the lake. Snowden was capped with cloud, however we tried to ascend it but after going some way found it very wet there we were forced to come back and rowed up the lake. As we went we sang in the boat opposite, to the very great delight and satisfaction of the old lady and her son. We then rode home.


16th July 1814, Saturday [page 265]

We went to sketch in the Castle. I found it hard to choose a spot, and had little time but sketching gives one an idea of the beauties of a place which nothing else will. We then went on to Bangor, the road commands a view of the straights and Anglesea and is very beautiful. At Bangor is a simple Cathedral, it is a pretty considerable place for a Welsh town. Then to Bangor [ferry?] which I think very beautiful. And then turning once more to the mountains after crossing a plain we plunged into their deep abysses once more. These mountains are very wild and grand. Lyn Ogwyn lies a short way from Capel Curig, it is pretty considerable for a Welsh lake and the mountains round it very fine. Found Mr Houghton and Mary at Capel Curig. Mr Griffin came through the pass from Llanberis and speaks of it as very fine. This inn is more like a court house, the view of Snowden at the end of the valley is very imposing. More like a mountain than any I have seen. We walked about in the evening.


17th July 1814, Sunday

Mr Griffin went to Snowden. We girls and my Aunt went and set out on the hills above the house and here while we inhaled the fresh breezy air and plucked the wild flowers we talked of the distresses of life and took comfort from what my Aunt said. How thankless and thoughtless a condition were we then in not to be content and happy. How do I turn to those days and think how I would now enjoy them. Had I then done my duty, been [priors?] benevolent and self-governed. How thrice happy had I been let me not now then again ever do wrong, let me now perceive and fear if I do not that still worse may befall me. Mr Houghton read Service to us in the morning. After dinner waked up the valley. In the evening I walked with my dear girl up and down the dining room. Conversation at night about our projected expedition to Lynn [Idwell?]. How I loved her, and yet how poorly did I watch and serve her. Oh when I write this how earnestly do I pray that affection may never cease till I am become steadfast in goodness.


18th July 1814, Monday [page 266]

Emma, Mr Griffin and I set out to Lynn Idwell [Lynn Eigiau?] which though of considerable beauty disappointed me a good deal. Sat and talked by the side of the lake. I am happy indeed if that conversation did any good. Lady Parslyn[?] and came to Capal Curig today and was busy domineering poor woman now since dead, so is the Duke of Dorset who was there one night with us, so is Mr Griffin and Louisa. Mr Griffin left us in the evening to return home. My Aunt was ill tonight. Little Louisa washer nurse, tending and watching her. I was drawing in the parlour.


19th July 1814, Tuesday [page 267]

We left Capel Curig to go to Llanrwst. Saw the waterfall at Blindar which were it full would be fine indeed. Llanrwst is beautifully situated.Gwydir woods with the river flowing beneath them and the view from the bridge all very striking. The ride to Conway has nothing remarkable in it. The first view of the place is at Riffin, but I had not the least idea of its beauty till I got actually into the place and then I think its broad water and wooded opposite banks, the promontories of arcadia and the castle rock between which the town full of gardens and shaded with walls covered with shrubs and ivy, the little island and the woods of Benarth altogether form the loveliest and most cheerful scene that is to be imagined. I have never in my life seen a place which so well justifies all my remotest dreams of beauty.


21st July 1814, Thursday

My Aunt and Eliza called on Mrs [Nugent, Regnoth?], we girls walked under the Benorth woods.

[crossed out 'My Aunt and Eliza called on Mrs Reynolds'} ME, LC and I walked to the Racecourse. The day was very hot and as we sat under a bank talking on various interesting things Louisa was affected with an alarming bleeding at the nose. We took her to Mrs Williams lodge at Arcadia where Miss Williams and her governess joined us with the kindest offers of assistance. The bleeding was stopped and our apprehensions quieted for the time, perhaps more than was wise. People never seem sufficiently afraid of the tender or never afraid at the right time. There are dreadful retrospections now to me, but iput them down that I remember to watch more carefully in future over the health of those who are tender. I put them down coldly now, but God knows what this has been to me. We drank tea at Mrs Reynolds and walked to Benarth. I admired the taste of trees trained against the house wall and several standing on the bank of the hill in which the house stood and so forms a foreground to the view from it. We had a large hospitable hot supper on our return.


22nd July 1814, Friday [page 268]

Mrs Reynolds took us in a boat up the river. It was very hot but a delightful view all the way. The banks covered with wood and studded with gentlemen's houses. We stopped at a small inn and lay down in a hay barn to cool and rest. Saw a ferry boat pass with a woman and horse, the boat was more like the cabin end of a canal boat than anything else and was strung along a cord which worked across the river. The beauty of the water is much increased by the vessels upon it and the [nensions?] herons and shell ducks playing about. In the evening we drank tea at Badlowdess, /the place of contest/ with Mrs Williams, the Reynolds, Mrs Liddle and Miss Montesque. I found that Arcadia, that the magnificence of nature, that freedom, that ease, were all corrupted here as elsewhere by vanity, [finery, fancy?] the wish to be thought grand and genteel and all the pain of deformities that under this [lea, lie?] corrupt and destroy human beauty and tranquility. Everybody was very finely dressed. We walked in the lovely walks, in the evening we sang and Mrs Liddle, a pretty, simple hearted woman was in ecstasy with her sweet warbler as she called my lovely Louisa.


23rd July 1814, Saturday

We called at Badladess in the morning and in the evening went to Aber that we might see Penmaenmawr. Penmaenmawr rises abruptly from the sea to a great height. The road is cut on its precipices overhang the waters far below. The Isle of Anglesea with all its bays  and woods lie at your feet. The tremendous precipices over [hang?] you pass and the beauty of the scene beheld from them are very striking. Aber lies on a flat beyond Penmaenmawr, here we drank tea and walked to the Church, which was repaired by Lord [Ballely?] who has [I, 9?] inscribed in [stone, Lotn, Lohn?] alas the last of the noble family of the Balleley's though he is yet alive. As we came back the sun was setting, the waters were one lake of pink and gold. It was exquisitely beautiful. The whole road from Penmaenmawr to Conway winds, among dark mountains and as they deepened round us in the twilight their effect was doubled. Conway as we returned was lighted up by a clear full moon, and was sleeping in tranquil beauty.


24th July 1814, Sunday [page 270]

We called at Mrs Reynolds in our way to Church and there saw Captain Burrows. We went before service to see the children taught by the ladies. The governess in an elegant white satin bonnet and delicate veil diverted me sufficiently. There was I thought a great desire among the different ladies to secure us for an audience. In the evening we had [aided, invited?] our acquaintance Mr Williams who preached and Captain burrows to tea. We walked to the town mountain which commands a beautiful view with Captain Barrows. After supper we walked to see the Castle by moonlight. I came home with Captain B and Louisa. This evening was very pleasant.


25th July 1814, Monday

Early in the morning we crossed the water to Gladdorth. Mr Loyd who lives there now was exceedingly obliging to us, asking us to breakfast and offering us his [gavern?] chair to take round the grounds. The woods here for there is extraordinary [sickness?] and beauty surpassing anything I have ever seen. The views behind the hill to the coast of [flat?] and on this side to Conway of great beauty. This place is indeed well worth visiting. In the evening went to see Mrs Reynolds, take a sketch first in her garden at the west end of the walls, then under Banarth. In the evening waked to Badlowdess and back, farewell to the obliging party there.


26th July 1814, Tuesday

Left Conway with great regret. Ride to Llanrwst. Captain Burrows overtook us and joined us at breakfast. He walked to the bridge, the sun was shining in the broad river overhung by the magnificent Gwydir woods. Some loose trees running straggling into the water under which cows were [cobbing?]. It was a beautiful picture. We then walked to Gwydir woods, all luxuriant in abundant foliage. To the Chapel chiefly recommended by its situation and looked at the old house where there is little to see. We then part with Captain Burrows and went on to Cerniage [Cerrigydrudion?]. On the road there is a magnificent [rattan?] chasm and bridge. Cerniage is in the midst of a dreary moor waste of which the features are not strong enough to be sublime, where neither tree nor flower is seen for miles. On to Corwen which stands in a very pretty valley.


27th July 1814, Wednesday

Early in the morning to Llangollen. This is a very beautiful ride. Crow Castle is a fine mountain and the whole valley shut in by lofty hills with a beautiful river winding through. After breakfast waked to Val Crucis Abbey. The window that remains at one end is of beauty architecture. This ruin stand in a sequested spot embowered in trees with a little stream running by. We then went on to Crow Castle, stopped to see the magnificent aqueduct, its great arches, it great length and it majestic simplicity impressed me more than any work I ever saw. There was a rumour that Lord Wellington was on the road and I felt as if I [hang?] by all the aqueducts in the world for a change of seeing him. At Crow [Corfe?] Castle there is nothing but the pictures. There is one by Guido, a picture of a young female going to be executed for poisoning her father. She was, I believe, innocent. The exhaustion of protracted suffering, the sick, pale cheek, the chin, eye, the [unwanted?] look, yellow [hair?] that strayed from her negligent white head-dress expressed more of suffering than I thought  a picture could express. It told a whole story of what she had felt in prison. There was an exquisite picture of fair Rosamond with the softest profusion of silken light hair flowing round her delicate [pity? Feeling?] countenance, and a cabinet picture of Raphael's which I did not much admire. Came to Luxton, and I felt a sensation of loathing, suffocation and depression on coming into streets of red brick houses and to the every day look of England that I was not in the least prepared for. My dear Louisa was ill with a dreadful headache this night.


28th July 1814, Thursday

Went into the Church to see the monument which disappointed me, and then to Chester. I was neither surprised nor pleased. The rows did not strike me with novelty and I thought they darkened and crowded the street. Nor do I much like the walls. My chief pleasure was to look at the beloved Welsh mountains.


29th July 1814, Friday

Shopped and then went on to Nantwich to tea.


30th July 1814, Saturday

Dined at my Uncle's in the evening walked back and sat with AB and my L. 


31st July 1814, Sunday

Louisa saw Mr Hart, in the evening took her home, supported her in my arms almost the whole way. Stopped at Alsager North for milk. Got home. Papa out, JSC gone to the Continent.


1st August 1814, Monday

Mr Skerret came. Louisa very unwell. I was very ill too and could hardly get to my garden. 


2nd August 1814, Tuesday

Louisa worse, slept by her side that night with my watch under my head to [boter?] her for medicine. 


3rd August 1814, Wednesday

Sent for Dr Darwin. Louisa much worse. Mr Skerret came. Her complexion varying every moment. Ten thousand horrid fears beset me. Papa came home. She slept in Mama's room.


4th August 1814, Thursday

Dr Darwin came, tried the Bath. Ordered her to be put to bed. Watched her all day, almost all night. 


5th August 1814, Friday

The same sad task but she seemed better. Mr Griffin called. 


6th August 1814, Saturday

No better. Emma ill. I nursed her all day and night in horror, in effect in grief yet with exquisite [came?] miserable feelings of tenderness and sweetness. Her patience, her feeling, her suffering not to be expressed, very ill at night, in great pain with her till two o'clock, then she went to sleep.


7th August 1814, Sunday

Very ill. Mr Skerret saw her, with her all night. Where must I [li anne?] what must I do next.


8th August 1814, Monday

Worse and worse in the night all at once dreadfully ill. Oh my god, left me her watch if she should die, bid me farewell, told me dying was not so bad as she had once thought it, begged me to be comforted. Sent for Mr Skerret, he for Dr Northen, as soon as I saw her


[written in vertical text]

-the next morning I knew I must lose her. The next day was spent in unremitting efforts to save and help her and all night too but why and for what use do I take this pleasure in recalling those moments yet they were almost the sweetest of my life. I did love her so very very dearly and she did love me. Oh my God join us again [love, lose? -]. Dr Darwin came and she grew worse and worse and bust into a [running?] delirium and oh what a heart was disclosed when the reserve of her character thus wore off and everything that was [sublime?] heavenly, holy ardent affectionate, tender,[fervent?] issued from her sweet lips. I sat with her till 10 o'clock and then dropped asleep and was woken by her exclamations. I could stay no longer, I thought God does [jasaten?] his will when he let that adorable angel [creature?] suffer so dreadfully, if my thoughts were almost blasphemous he will forgive my horrible despair. The rest is all a tale of apathy. Her last night I had an attack of the same [distress?] headache and [body?] sweats. Horror, miserable, lost possession of my mind lest the same dreadful malady should seize me. I seemed to lose all sense of feeling and became a stone. I watched her afterwards and tended her as much as ever I could but she never spoke to me like herself again. She died in my arms in about a [quarter - ?] after having expressed every form of horror, and I did not die with her for all my feelings were gone, but never from that day to this have I known what it was to feel as she and I felt together. And I never can again. I miss her in every walk and I go out and I want her, I call into the house, it is black and melancholy. I am sad, I am sick, I am well, I am ill, I am right, I am wrong and the same sad void is there. Now I think as little upon this subject as I strive to forget that to the loss of which nothing ever ever accustoms or reconcile me though I hope I have resigned her. August 20th 1816.  





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